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6. Specialty Session [clear filter]
Thursday, May 31
 

2:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) Fiber and Yarn Cross-section Sample Preparation Methods for Effective Plant Fiber Material Characterization and Identification
Fiber cross-section observation is often essential when characterizing and identifying plant fiber artifacts. A number of bast fibers and leaf fibers have very similar morphologies in the longitudinal direction but they differ more distinctively from each other in cross-section features. Most of the existing methods of fiber or yarn cross-section sample preparation, for either light or scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations, are not designed for handling fragile archaeological materials. The aim of this research project was to identify and develop effective fiber or yarn cross-section preparation methods which can be used for studying fragile archaeological textile objects. This study compared three fiber or yarn cross-section sample preparation methods for SEM observation including epoxy embedding, modified plastic fiber cross-section plate and free-hand as well as another three methods for light microscopic (LM) observation, including epoxy embedding and ultra-thin cross-sectioning, free-hand sectioning of embedded fiber or yarn sample and Precision Cross-section Microtome. All these methods were applied to the same archaeological textile remains retrieved from an early 16th century shipwreck site. Several known fiber or fiber plant samples were also studied for reference purposes, including hemp, jute, sisal, abaca, stinging nettle and flax. The SEM results showed that the adoption of a plastic cross-section plate designed for LM usage was the most effective fiber or yarn cross-section preparation method. The plate is cheap and easy to use. Either fiber or yarn samples can be placed into the 1-2 mm holes within the plastic plate using a known synthetic fiber as buffer or protection around the archaeological fiber sample. As to the three methods for LM observation, the most efficient method was free-hand sectioning of fiber or yarn embedded in common slide preparation solution. When dealing with very fragile sample, however, the best method was epoxy resin embedding and ultra-thin cross-sectioning (1 micrometer). This method minimizes sample distortion and keeps the sample intact. However, a phase contrast microscope is needed for observing and imaging the obtained ultra-thin cross-section samples. Based on all the cross-section images obtained from both archaeological textile samples and reference fibers or fiber plant samples, we recommend using yarns to prepare cross-section sample for either SEM or LM observation when possible. The cross-section of yarns could provide not only fiber information but also other plant tissue cell characteristics. The later can be critical when identifying a specific fiber plant. When studying very fragile archaeological textile material, we recommend the method of epoxy embedding and ultra-thin sectioning, although this method is most time consuming. The other two methods using plastic fiber cross-section plate for SEM observation and free-hand sectioning of embedded sample for LM observation are quick, easy, effective and applicable to most of textile materials. Finally, the results of this project demonstrated again that fiber cross-section study is essential when identifying and characterizing archaeological plant fiber artifacts.

Speakers
avatar for Runying Chen

Runying Chen

Professor/Educator, East Carolina University
RUNYING CHEN, Associate Professor. Dr. Chen received her Ph.D. in Human Ecology, majoring in textile science with concentration in analytical chemistry, in 1998 from the Ohio State University. She has been teaching at the Department of Interior Design and Merchandising of East Carolina... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Tom Fink

Tom Fink

Biology Department Imaging Laboratory Manager, East Carolina University
Tom Fink received his PhD from Florida State University. He manages Biology Department Imaging Laboratory, conducts and assists research projects using the laboratory facilities. Dr. Fink also teaches biology imaging courses for both undergraduate and graduate students at East Carolina... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) Untangling Indian Hemp: Understanding and Identifying Common Plant Fibers Used by Native Americans in the Woodlands Region
Bast fibers from North American plant species make up a significant portion of textiles produced by Woodlands cultures. These fibers, which are derived from the inner stems of certain plant species, are a traditional and important to many nations in the Northeast and Great Lakes region, yet have received little attention from Western-focused academia. Much of the literature and fiber identification is unclear, incorrect, or based on a Western perspective. Fibers are frequently referred to as “Indian Hemp,” which aside from being an inherently problematic term, has several meanings. This research aims to collaborate with Indigenous community members to identify traditional fiber producing plants and how they utilized to produce textiles. Three Native American experts in fiber preparation were invited to the National Museum of the American Indian Cultural Resource Center to share and discuss harvesting, processing and weaving, as well as the cultural and material significance of these fibers. As an outcome, a handling collection of physical samples as well as polarized light and scanning electron micrographs will be created to aid in understanding of both the macro and micro properties of these materials. The reference collections and appropriate associated cultural information are available to conservators, curators, and Native and non-Native researchers to improve accuracy of fiber identification, enhance material understanding, and reinforce cultural knowledge. Images will also be made available on online for wider access. By understanding both the physical and cultural context of materials, conservators can make more appropriate decisions about the care of our collections. Allowing indigenous voices to be the authority on their own cultural heritage not only begins the decolonization process of museums, but enriches the institution as well.

Speakers
avatar for Nora Frankel

Nora Frankel

Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Nora Frankel is an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian. Past work includes positions at the Rijksmuseum, Burrell Collection, Death Valley National Park, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, and... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Susan Heald

Susan Heald

Textile Conservator, National Museum of the American Indian
Susan Heald has been the National Museum of the American Indian’s textile conservator since 1994, where she has supervised many pre-program interns and post-graduate fellows. Prior to NMAI, she served as the Minnesota Historical Society’s textile conservator, and was a Smithsonian... Read More →
avatar for Thomas Lam

Thomas Lam

conservation scientist, Smithsonian Conservation Institute
Thomas Lam has a Ph.D. in Ceramics from Alfred University. After his PhD, Thomas completed a postdoc at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Thomas is a Physical Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute (MCI), where he applies his knowledge... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) The Norwich textile reference database, a collections care project
The city of Norwich, United Kingdom still produces beautiful and high-quality woolen textiles, although its heyday was between the 14th and 19th centuries. As a result of this active textile industry, garments and fabrics are found in numerous textile collections around the globe. In spite of its importance, information regarding dyes, mordants and technologies associated with dying practices in the city remain scarce. During the second half of the 18th century, when the trade of raw materials and finished goods was commonplace, merchant manufacturers used pattern books and cards containing textile swatches to facilitate sales and trade. Some of these outstandingly well-preserved pattern books survive. After thorough ethical conversations, a dye-and-mordant database incorporating chromatographic and spectroscopic data is being generated using samples from these pattern books. High-performance liquid chromatography – photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence (XRF), has allowed us to identify distinctive dye and mordant combinations, which, in parallel with collaborative historical and archival research, is aiding in understanding the industry’s practices. More importantly, this will ultimately support collections care by providing sound scientific information related to textiles’ constituent material properties, such as light and moisture sensitivity of certain color components.

Speakers
avatar for Dr. Jocelyn Alcantara Garcia

Dr. Jocelyn Alcantara Garcia

Assistant Professor, Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation
Jocelyn Alcántara-García joined the WUDPAC program in the fall of 2014 after working for about five years in interdisciplinary projects (predominantly in Mexico, where she was born). All projects were conducted in close collaboration with conservators and scientists, and included... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Michael Nix

Michael Nix

Independent Textile and Maritime Historian
Michael Nix obtained his PhD in maritime history at the Department of English Local History, Leicester University in 1991. He worked as the Research Manager for Transport and Technology in Major Projects and Research, Glasgow Museums, and has published books, papers and articles on... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) A sizable sooty soiled surface: Analyzing and evaluating methods for surface cleaning a large painted muslin
Throughout the documentation and treatment of an unusually large painted muslin, analytical methods helped to both characterize the object, and evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. Displayed at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, the muslin painted by Strike the Kettle (Lakota), a follower of Sitting Bull, depicts multiple scenes including gift giving, cooking, and warriors on horseback. The muslin was treated for the major long-term exhibition, Americans, at the National Museum of the American Indian. Previous extended display in the industrial urban centers of Chicago and New York City resulted in heavy, sooty, lead-containing surface soiling. Prominent tar-like stains in the center had haloed tidelines from an earlier treatment attempt. Pigments, binder, and stain residue were characterized using microscopy, portable x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), microscope-FTIR, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Analyses confirmed that common late 19th century trade pigments were used with a proteinaceous binder. All paint colors were evaluated for light stability using microfadeometry, revealing all but one were stable. The black stain was characterized as an oily resinous compound with surprisingly high lead levels. The treatment priority was to reduce the stain and its associated tideline, and disfiguring surface soiling. Vacuuming the muslin through Vellux fabric trapped significant soiling, however the visual impact was minimal requiring additional dry cleaning treatment. Of the four sponges evaluated, the vulcanized rubber soot sponge was most effective though somewhat abrasive based on cleaning tests, microscopy, FTIR, and pXRF. The need for multiple hands working simultaneously over a large surface area necessitated a systematic approach to ensure consistency. This cleaning methodology produced large quantities of heavily soiled Vellux and sponges, allowing for a thorough study of cleaning mechanisms and soiling characteristics. While the tar-like stain responded poorly to all solvents tested, ethanol and a suction platen successfully reduced the tidelines created by the previous treatment. The treatment methods dramatically improved the muslin’s appearance. Final pXRF analyses indicated the soot sponge was more effective at reducing overall lead levels than the use of a Vellux-covered vacuum alone. Portable XRF also detected lead levels on the used Vellux and soot sponges, but not the nitrile gloves, which had implications for material disposal as potential hazardous waste.

Speakers
avatar for Susan Heald

Susan Heald

Textile Conservator, National Museum of the American Indian
Susan Heald has been the National Museum of the American Indian’s textile conservator since 1994, where she has supervised many pre-program interns and post-graduate fellows. Prior to NMAI, she served as the Minnesota Historical Society’s textile conservator, and was a Smithsonian... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Nora Frankel

Nora Frankel

Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Nora Frankel is an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian. Past work includes positions at the Rijksmuseum, Burrell Collection, Death Valley National Park, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, and... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Gwénaëlle Kavich

Dr. Gwénaëlle Kavich

Conservation Scientist, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Gwénaëlle Kavich, Conservation Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute, earned a BSc in Chemistry from The Nottingham Trent University (U.K.) and a PhD in Chemical Sciences from the University of Pisa (Italy). She contributes to a wide range of technical studies... Read More →
avatar for Thomas Lam

Thomas Lam

conservation scientist, Smithsonian Conservation Institute
Thomas Lam has a Ph.D. in Ceramics from Alfred University. After his PhD, Thomas completed a postdoc at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Thomas is a Physical Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute (MCI), where he applies his knowledge... Read More →
avatar for Nicole Little

Nicole Little

Physical Scientist, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Nicole Little is a Physical Scientist at the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum Conservation Institute. She received both her B.A. and M.A. in Anthropology from the University of Missouri-Columbia, where her master’s research dealt with the compositional analysis of Mayan ceramics... Read More →
avatar for Annaick Parker

Annaick Parker

collections contractor, Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum
Annaick Keruzec is a textile conservator who currently works at the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum (ACM) as a collections specialist focusing on photographically illustrated quilts and a rehousing project. From 2015-2017 she was an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow at the Smithsonian... Read More →
avatar for Megan Doxsey Whitfield

Megan Doxsey Whitfield

Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Object Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Megan Doxsey-Whitfield is currently a Mellon Fellow in Objects Conservation at the National Museum of the American Indian. She is a graduate of the Queen’s University Master of Art Conservation program (MAC ’15) and holds a Bachelor of Arts in Art History from the University of... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:30pm

(Textiles) Practical Applications of Conservation and Restoration Strategies for Historical Clothing in Uncontrolled Historical Houses
Some Egyptian historic houses are now used as museums, many of which are uncontrolled in their environmental conditions, such as Saad Zaghloul house (House of Nation). Which cause undamaged damage to historical clothing. This research deals with the restoration of the dress of Safia Zaghloul (Wife of Saad Zaghloul) as an example of the condition of historical clothing in historical houses. The dress is two parts the first is outer part and the second is an inner jacket of black color (Industrial dye). The dress was made from silk and cotton fabrics. There are many separate parts and lost pieces in the dress. It was observed that the stitching was separated and it contain stain and dirt. A close examination of the historical Cloth was undertaken in order to develop a plan of conservation treatment such as FTIR, XR-D. In addition, light microscope and SEM were used to identify the kind of fibers, their condition and surface morphology. The effects of cleaning materials on the natural dyes were tested. Fixing and support all the separated parts was done before cleaning. Dry cleaning was used to remove resistance stain and dirt. Mannequins are made with standard and free acidity materials. The manicures were lined and then the dress (the inner part - the outer part) was placed. The missing parts have been completed. The method of exhibition will be discussed. Photographs are included to document the conservation process

Speakers
avatar for Prof. Dr. Harby Ezzeldeen Ahmed

Prof. Dr. Harby Ezzeldeen Ahmed

Associate Prof of Historical Textiles Conservation., Cairo University
Prof Dr. Harby E. Ahmed is an Associate Professor of Conservation in the Faculty of Archaeology at Cairo University in Egypt.  Furthermore, he is an H.D Certified Trainer (Faculty and Leadership Development Center). He has more than 27 articles in international journals. Also, he... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 4:30pm - 5:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) Roundtable Discussion
When TSG and RATS began planning a joint session for the 2018 annual meeting, we met with some resistance because AIC records suggested that there were no individuals who were members of both specialty groups.  We've learned since that this is both not true (two of our panelists are members of both) and it's definitely not the case that no one in TSG is doing research, nor because no conservation scientists are interested in textiles. But how can we increase the interactions and strengthen ties between our two groups? 

In this panel discussion you will hear from a conservator in a major museum, a current professor, a retired professor and a conservator in private practice. Each will bring a different approach to this topic and offer advice and anecdotes on how they bridge the gap between research and textiles in their profession. Topics of discussion will include: what makes for a good and successful research project? Do all projects have to involve big questions and fancy scientific equipment?  How can keeping an open mind, and questioning assumptions lead to new discoveries?   What makes projects work?  What makes projects not work?  We hope that this panel will help our communities forge connections, learn from successes and failures and encourage each other.  Audience participation in the form of an open question and answer session will follow.
Panelists:
  • Dr. Margaret Ordoñez, Professor Emerita, Textiles, Fashion Merchandising, and Design, University of Rhode Island; Conservator, Ordoñez Textile Conservation Services, Camden, TN
  • Mary W. Ballard, Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Senior Textiles Conservator, Suitland, Maryland
  • Gwen Spicer, Spicer Art Conservation, LLC
  • Dr. Nancy Odegaard, Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

Speakers
avatar for Mary W. Ballard

Mary W. Ballard

Conservator, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
EducationB.A. Wellesley (1971)M.A. and Diploma in Conservation New York University Institute of Fine Arts (1979)Additional coursework: North Carolina State University, College of TextilesResearch Specialties and InterestsInterested in coloration of textiles and in the evidence of... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, University of Arizona
Nancy Odegaard is the Head of the Preservation Division at the Arizona State Museum on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson where she is also a professor with the Department of Material Science & Engineering, the School of Anthropology, and the Drachman Institute (historic... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Margaret T. Ordoñez

Dr. Margaret T. Ordoñez

Scientist/Researcher, Ordoñez Textile Conservation Services
Taught textile conservation classes in the graduate programs at Kansas State University and the University of Rhode Island; retired from URI in 2017 and set up Tenasi Textile Conservation Services in Tennessee. MS and PhD in textiles and clothing departments at the University of Tennessee... Read More →
avatar for Gwen Spicer-[Fellow]

Gwen Spicer-[Fellow]

Conservator, Spicer Art Conservation, LLC
Gwen Spicer is a Textile, Upholstery, Paper, and Objects Conservator, and full-time principal of Spicer Art Conservation, LLC, conveniently located in upstate New York. She received her Master’s degree from the Art Conservation Program at Buffalo State College, State University... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 6:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston
 
Friday, June 1
 

8:30am

(Textiles) A Lot of Nitpicking; Documentation of Tom Welter’s painted silk battle flag encapsulation method and materials.
Reconsidering the history of conservation is not solely about how things have been treated. Instead, by examining the decision-making process, which forms and informs future conservation treatments, we can gain context to fully understand and assess previous work. Tom Welter began to develop a method to encapsulate fragile silk battle flags in 1964 after a 3 day tutorial with conservator Katherine Scott. While Welter was very talented as an artist and mechanic he had no prior experience in textile conservation. The encapsulation treatment he developed, while invasive by today’s standard, was performed on more than 200 painted silk battle flags throughout the country. Innovative in application Welter’s ultimate goal of treatment was not just to consolidate but to make the flags available for use. Within this paper, a detailed documentation of the procedure developed by Welter will be revealed. Materials such as surfactants and adhesives will be identified. All information documenting the treatment procedure will be based on; Welter’s personal journal entries, written treatment documentation, physical evidence, and an oral history provided by his daughter Nancy Cyr. It is hoped that by documenting Welter’s encapsulation method, conservators and curators will be better informed to preserve these fragile silk battle flags.

Speakers
avatar for Ann Frisina

Ann Frisina

Conservator, Minnesota Historical Society
Ann Frisina began her career at the Textile Conservation Workshop in 1989 where she spent three years under the guidance of Senior Conservator, Karen Clark. While at T.C.W. her work focused on flat 2-dimensional textiles ranging in sizes from small samplers, to larger quilts. Moving... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 8:30am - 9:00am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Textiles) The Mortlake Horses: A Collaborative Approach to the Conservation of Seventeenth-Century British Tapestries at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
In preparation for the fall 2019 re-opening of The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s renovated British Galleries, Associate Conservator Olha Yarema-Wynar and Assistant Conservator Alexandra Barlow completed the long-term conservation treatment of the seventeenth-century tapestry The Destruction of the Children of Niobe (#36.149.1) from the English Mortlake workshop. This tapestry is one of two within The Met’s collection from The Horses, a set which depicts riding horses found in Ovid’s Metamorphoses.
The Destruction of the Children of Niobe, measuring approximately twelve feet by twenty feet, is impressive in size and image. Past restoration efforts of this large artwork are visible throughout the piece, and within this one tapestry exists numerous examples of the techniques used in the history of tapestry preservation. The most recent treatment was informed by an understanding of these historic techniques and the skill and experience of the conservators.  Stimulating conversations with curators at The Metropolitan Museum of Art also influenced the treatment by helping to determine the aesthetic vision for the tapestry. These discussions presented a challenge on how to accommodate the vision of the curators with the conservators’ decisions about stabilization needs and the tenets of current conservation philosophy.
For both conservators and curators, historic repairs are a valuable document of prior methods. They provide an understanding of changes in technical skill, the effects of restorations, and the shifting viewpoints on the value of tapestries. The conservators working on this project were able to survey in detail these previous techniques. This presentation discusses both the methods that have proved stable, as well as those that have caused additional conservation issues over time. While many of the historic insertions are strong and discrete, earlier use of darning and mending stitches have caused distortions to the surrounding areas. It was only after careful dialogue and discussion on the stability of the textile that these previous repairs were documented, removed, and updated. Time was also a consideration throughout the entire treatment.
The 2016-2017 treatment involved both conservation and restoration stitching, as well as a combination of both handwoven fabric used for reproduction gallon borders and commercially available fabric for stabilization and the lining.
As a case study, this presents the examination of one object and how its materials and techniques provide critical annotation to the history of the preservation of tapestries.  

Speakers
avatar for Alexandra Barlow

Alexandra Barlow

Assistant Conservator, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Alexandra Barlow, Assistant Conservator, is currently working with Olha Yarema-Wynar on the treatment of three large tapestries in preparation for the renovation of the British Galleries. She received her MA in Fashion and Textile Studies with a focus on Conservation from the Fashion... Read More →
avatar for Olha Yarema Wynar

Olha Yarema Wynar

Associate Conservator, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Olha Yarema-Wynar, Associate Conservator, is responsible for the conservation of textiles from the Department of Arms and Armor and the Department of European Sculpture and Decorative Art's tapestries collection. She holds an MFA in decorative and applied arts from the Lviv National... Read More →



Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Textiles) Confronting Challenges and Considering Consensus in the Conservation of Eighteenth-Century Fashion
This paper and presentation will focus on the conservation of an eighteenth-century French court dress and the research that this work inspired. Undertaken during a Fellowship at the Costume Institute, the treatment was an opportunity to consider broadly the conservation of garments from this time period. While there is no set of conservation methods or ethics unique to eighteenth-century costume, a collection survey of that century’s womenswear revealed certain patterns of degradation and common issues relating to both treatment and display. For example, how should conservators approach garments that have been altered, as so many eighteenth-century garments have been? Questions like this became the basis of a larger study of fashion conservation practice, drawing on both literature review and interviews with conservators in the United States, United Kingdom, and France. These not only provided an understanding of the range of possible solutions for the problems posed by eighteenth-century garments, but also shed light on a more abstract question: to what extent is there (or is there not) a consensus among conservators as to best practice for the conservation of fashion objects? Furthermore, do differences in approach lie along personal, institutional, or geographic lines?

Speakers
avatar for Marina Hays

Marina Hays

Polaire Weissman Fellow in Conservation, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Costume Institute
Marina Hays is the 2017-2018 Polaire Weissman Fund Fellow in Conservation at the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Costume Institute, where she is researching fashion conservation practice with a particular focus on eighteenth-century garments. She was previously an intern at The Met... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 10:00am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Textiles) The Use Of Paper-Based Materials For The Treatment Of Plant Fiber
The collection of the Royal Museum for Central Africa (AfricaMuseum) encompasses a broad range of objects that contain plant fibers. Those plant fibers are sensitive materials which can damage easily due to handling, light exposure and fluctuations in relative humidity and temperature. Consequently the fibers of the objects are often discolored, deformed or broken and multiple objects are actively shedding fibers or suffer from ‘baldness’.
Some plant fiber objects selected for exhibition in the renovated AfricaMuseum were too degraded to be displayed. The plant fibers were treated with paper materials in order to stabilize the objects and improve their readability. Multiple products can be grouped under the term ‘paper based Materials’, such as Japanese tissue, archival grade paper and cellulose pulp. These materials are not commonly used in textile conservation. The products have specific sets of characteristics  that can be applied to the divers treatments of objects, ranging from structural fills to thin protective coatings. Paper fibers are strong, light-weight, flexible and they can be toned with well-known conservation grade paints and dyes to mimic the appearances of the original object. The versatility of the paper based materials will be demonstrated through several treatments that are on the verge between the disciplines of textile, object and paper conservation.
This paper will focus on multiple case studies carried out by the conservation lab of the AfricaMuseum. For the treatment of two African plant fiber masks, Japanese tissue and Arbocel 400 were used for loss compensation and fiber support. Furthermore Japanese tissue has been used as a substitute for plant fiber cord, with well be documented through the treatment of a dance costume made from knotted plant fiber. Thick bands of Japanese paper also proved to be the ideal support for the support and stabilization of the woven plant fibers from a burial mat. An even thicker band of conservation grade paper paperboard was used to recreate pieces of the waistband from a skirt made out of thick plant fibers. A short overview will be given of other African objects that were treated with paper material such as drums, figurines and string instruments.
Japanese tissue, conservation grade archival paper and cellulose pulp have become staple materials in the conservation lab. The variety of the papers and cellulose pulp available is huge and their versatility can be even further adjusted by the choice of dye/paint and adhesives or through additions of other materials. Paper based materials have often proved to be the perfect fit for the treatment of the diverse collection of the AfricaMuseum; were conservation is a cross-discipline between objects, textile and paper conservation.

Speakers
avatar for Anoek De Paepe

Anoek De Paepe

Objects conservator, Royal Museum for Central Africa
Anoek De Paepe is an object conservator at the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA) in Tervuren, Belgium. As the museum is being renovated, she is currently working on the preparing the objects for the reopening of the museum at the end of 2018. In 2016 she received her master’s... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Marieke van Es

Marieke van Es

Conservator, Royal Museum for Central Africa
Marieke van Es graduated at the University of Antwerp were she received her master degree in conservation and restoration. After graduating she started to work at the Fashion Museum in Antwerp. Since 2014 she is working at the RMCA were she is preparing the object for the renovated... Read More →
SG

Siska Genbrugge

Objects Conservator, Royal Museum for Central Africa
Siska Genbrugge is objects conservator at the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA) in Tervuren, Belgium. Prior to her appointment at the RMCA she was assistant objects conservator at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). Siska completed her MA degree in conservation as a... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Textiles) The Hidden Codex, A discussion of loss of cultural heritage of the history and religion of indigenous people and its impact on Mesoamerican studies through the examination of a possible newly discovered original Mixtec codex.
Kelly Gross, Midwestern Epigraphic Society Editor, 5-year AIC Member. The problem is that historically significant artifacts are being ignored and their cultural heritage lost. This occurs largely because of the difficulty some, but not all, experts have in recognizing the value in something new or undiscovered. The Hidden Codex is a case in point. This artifact is a single work on plaster and fiber mat in vivid color likely by a single artist and measures 122 cm by 30.5cm. It has been well researched. Carbon dated at 1650 C E, the codex pigments were made from all natural materials in the La Mixteca region of Oaxaca in Mexico. Previously unknown, it is not one of the only eight known Mixtec codex artifacts in the world but instead represents the only Mixtec divinatory almanac, referred to as a Tonalamatl, now known to exist. It portrays five deities and is calendrical in nature with borders of the traditional 13- day pictorial sequencing as seen in some of the other 8 known Mixtec codex examples. But unlike the others it portrays the rituals and festivals of the indigenous religion. Normally other researchers would continue to study and duplicate the findings. Instead, what is happening is that a cultural history is being lost in an attempt to enforce a traditional orthodoxy: That no new codex artifacts can be discovered. Any attempts to contradict this thinking are met with claims from the archeology establishment that the authors are promoting reproductions or forgeries. This paper explores the Hidden Codex research on both sides and presents an objective picture including provenance documents of source location and history. Insight is provided into the codex’s pictorial use of calendar-based events and rituals on a cultural basis. Finally, the results of EDS and FTIR analytical testing are presented along with pigment photomicrographs and a discussion of the indigenous construction and its importance historically. The significance of this research is that it presents what could possibly be the only known codex that was never in the hands of the Spanish. This paper also presents the possibility that the indigenous people continued to practice their religion under Spanish occupation, contrary to popular opinion.

Speakers
avatar for Kelly H. Gross

Kelly H. Gross

Editor, Midwestern Epigraphic Society
Kelly H. Gross is a five year AIC member, has served as The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Newsletter editor, and has been involved in numerous technical research projects and assignments. Through his consulting work Mr Gross has been fortunate to engage with professionals in education... Read More →

Co-Authors
LJ

Loren Jeffries

Research analyst, Hidden Codex Properties, LLC
Roger Sexton and Loren Jeffries have both authored books on the subject of ancient mesoamerican artifacts and culture and are founding members of the Midwetern Epigraphic Society. Mr Jeffries book,"The Sacred Count: The Fractal Calendar of Ancient Meso-America" – November 20, 2016... Read More →
avatar for Roger Sexton

Roger Sexton

Research analyst, Hidden Codex Properties, LLC
Roger Sexton and Loren Jeffries have both authored books on the subject of ancient mesoamerican artifacts and culture and are founding members of the Midwetern Epigraphic Society. Mr Jeffries book,"The Sacred Count: The Fractal Calendar of Ancient Meso-America" – November 20, 2016... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston
 
Saturday, June 2
 

10:00am

(Textiles) Application of Multispectral Imaging in the Practice of Textile Conservation: Documentation, Investigation, and Communication
Thanks to advances in digital imaging and its increased availability, Multispectral Imaging (MSI) is becoming a useful tool in conservation. Photography with different ranges of radiation such as IR, UV, and X-ray has been widely used in conservation. What recent development in MSI offers more of than those conventional images is based on digital imaging technique. Higher reproducibility which otherwise tends to be subjective to users and set-ups, can be attained by standardization in capturing and processing images using digital cameras and imaging programs. This consistency is critical when using visual information as analytical data. MSI requires relatively simple and inexpensive set-ups with a range of radiation sources and filters. A set of images is produced by systematically recording reflective and luminescence radiation from an object through the spectra of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light in controlled settings. Each image maps different information from the object. It has been a challenge to translate this visual information and find its applications in conservation practice. Analyzing the luminescent component of an object under UV light has been used as a non-destructive analytical technique to identify some materials. In the past, the majority of studies on analyzing visual information from MSI was done with paintings and sculptures. In this presentation, I will explore MSI of various types of samples and textiles from the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, discussing information that each spectrum provides. Based on our knowledge of conventional IR and UV images, textiles of different materials and conditions will be chosen to demonstrate information as diverse as possible provided by MSI. Images taken under UV light show a wide range of visual information including colors. Textile conservators have used UV light to detect condition issues and luminescent materials on the surface, such as dirt, stain, additives and some organic colorants. Some dyes are known for their specific luminescence under UV light and there are indications that more materials show specific patterns of luminescence. In order to have any analytical conclusions, we need sufficient information that can be comparable and communicable. I expect this imaging technique will help us to collect standardized data by recording the intensity and color information systematically. MSI has already proved to be an excellent mapping method by providing a holistic view of an object showing the distribution of certain material or condition. Depending on the user’s purpose, images of different spectra can be merged or highlighted by using false color technique which manipulates red, green, and blue components for stronger visual effects. I hope more analytical use of MSI is possible. If we can identify or even categorize materials on textiles based on visual information under certain radiation, we would be able to instantly provide necessary support for their preservation. I wish to collaborate with other conservators to create a platform where we can exchange and share information to discover MSI’s potential applications in textile conservation.

Speakers
avatar for Kisook Suh

Kisook Suh

Associate Conservator, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Kisook Suh is Associate Conservator in the Department of Textile Conservation at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. She is currently working on medieval tapestries of The Cloisters’ collections. Kisook has been part of varied projects at the Museum, in particular preparing textiles... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Textiles) Pointing in the Right Direction: Identifying Technological Features to Orient Navajo Textiles
This talk includes the findings of a technical study on Navajo handwoven textiles. Our research identifies key markers in fabric construction to aid in determining the textiles’ original orientation on the upright frame loom during weaving and, by extension, the actual top, bottom, front and back of the textile. These physical markers could easily be mistaken as damage, wear, repairs or other condition issues, making their identification particularly important. Additionally, identifying the orientation is significant for proper placement of museum labels; appropriate positioning for documentation and exhibition, and to aid researchers and weavers studying collections. Key features may also be potentially useful for identifying the work of individual weavers across an assemblage, and to discern the weaver’s hand even after items have been traded and collected. While there is an extensive literature on Navajo weaving and textiles, little to no attention has focused on documenting and interpreting these technological markers in order to establish the textiles’ original orientation. Rather, publications on technology have focused on distinguishing Navajo from Pueblo, Spanish American and Mexican textiles, and determining a chronology based on construction, materials, and design. To address this gap in the literature, our technical survey includes a sample of Navajo dresses, blankets, ponchos, and rugs, all woven on a frame loom and ranging from the mid nineteenth to twenty-first centuries. We provide discussion and visual examples of a number of telltale technological traits and evaluate their effectiveness in pointing a viewer in the right direction. From this project, we provide a workflow and documentation form to use in discerning the top from bottom, and front from back in Navajo textiles.

Speakers
avatar for Betsy Burr

Betsy Burr

Assistant Conservator, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service
Betsy Burr is from Minneapolis, MN and began her training in conservation at the Minnesota Historical Society in Saint Paul. She received her MA in 2016 from UCLA in Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials where she completed her thesis on dye analysis of archaeological... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, University of Arizona
Nancy Odegaard is the Head of the Preservation Division at the Arizona State Museum on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson where she is also a professor with the Department of Material Science & Engineering, the School of Anthropology, and the Drachman Institute (historic... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Delana Joy Farley

Delana Joy Farley

Museum Curator, Southern Ute Museum
Delana Joy Farley is Dine from Littlewater, NM on the Navajo Nation. She is a third generation weaver and also a museum professional. She graduated with a BA from the Institute of American Indian Arts in 2006 and also with an MA from New York University in Museum Studies in 2008... Read More →
avatar for Ann Lane Hedlund

Ann Lane Hedlund

Museum Curator, Retired, Arizona State Museum
Ann Lane Hedlund served from 1997 to 2013 as museum curator at Arizona State Museum and anthropology professor at University of Arizona, where she also directed the Gloria F. Ross Center for Tapestry Studies until her 2013 retirement. Dr. Hedlund is a cultural anthropologist who collaborates... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Textiles) Taking the strain: Strain monitoring to inform tapestry conservation and display
An innovative research project at the University of Glasgow, From the Golden Age to the Digital Age: Modelling and Monitoring Historic Tapestries, is using techniques from the field of engineering to provide information on conservation techniques and display methods for tapestry. While textile conservation procedures grew out of traditional repair techniques, since the 1960s the field has been characterised by a more scientific approach including a greater understanding of textile properties, the use of new materials and more refined conservation techniques. However to date there has been only a small amount of research into the physical and mechanical properties of historic textiles or their associated support materials. This project builds on work at the University of Southampton which showed that digital image correlation can be used to give highly visual information on the strain experienced by tapestries on display – strain maps can indicate areas at highest risk of damage and inform decisions about conservation treatments. As different traditions of tapestry conservation across Europe and the USA employ a range of different stitching methods, our current project is applying this technology to compare the effectiveness of a range of interventive treatments. This will provide tapestry conservators with additional data to complement visual information from the tapestry and to help them in selecting appropriate treatments. The researchers are also looking at tapestry display methods, including the use of slanted supports, which are becoming much more common for tapestry in Europe. Testing will demonstrate the degree of support provided by the slant, and the role of friction from the material covering the slanted support. The paper will report on the most recent project results, comparing data from model tapestries, and building on work to date which is already showing unexpected effects of hanging tapestries from Velcro® hook and loop fastener. The project team, from the Centre for Textile Conservation and Technical Art History and the School of Engineering in Glasgow, are working closely with textile conservators from Glasgow Museums as they prepare tapestries for display in the refurbished Burrell Collection in 2020. We have recently carried out monitoring of a 16th century tapestry before and after conservation treatment, and the results will be included in the discussion. A newly woven tapestry at Stirling Castle – one of a set modelled on the Unicorn tapestries in the Metropolitan Museum of Art - is also being monitored over a period of years, and this is informing improvements in the monitoring technique.

Speakers
avatar for Frances Lennard

Frances Lennard

Professor of Textile Conservation, University Of Glasgow
Frances Lennard is the Director of the Centre for Textile Conservation and Technical Art History at the University of Glasgow and leads the MPhil Textile Conservation programme. She was previously the Programme Leader of the MA Textile Conservation at the Textile Conservation Centre... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Maggie Dobbie

Maggie Dobbie

Textile Conservator, Glasgow Museums
Maggie Dobbie is a textile conservator at Glasgow Museums, following a career in textile conservation at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Textiles) A bridge between Science and Archaeology in studying Tutankhamun's Hassock
A unique category of bead-work, found in the tomb of Tutankhamun, the hassock, or small pillows. The footstool was made of cloth filled with bran. On the cloth an elaborate pattern of bead-work, in blue, green, red, yellow and white disc beads. The composition and the technology of the hassocks are the most complex of Egyptian bead-work. This hassock presents the analysis of Social aspects in this period from interesting by decoration of bead-work and also the unique technological solutions. The aim of our research first is to describe the beading techniques from the analysis of the fabrication and pattern of bead-work, also to give an insight in time spent in production and on the effort put into this hassock. The identification of botanic remains assemblage from hassock. Photographic documentation with Dino-Lite Digital Microscope (USB) for beads and bran remains, also drawing and illustration was used to document the materials used, the pattern, the beading technique and type of beads used in a beaded fabric. Dino-Lite Digital Microscope (USB) talks all measurements diameter, thickness, length and width for both beads and bran remains.Archaeopotanic study is very important in this part of our research which gives us more details about the technology and bran used in footstool in the new kingdom which was identified from Hordeum Species. Multispectral imaging (MSI) technique was used on the different color beads, allowing us to analyze it non-destructively and with great results from each color. Multiple analytical and examination techniques were carried out on the beads and bran, such as optical light microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) ,X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF). pXRF is best suited to minor and trace elements for this XRF is used to determine the elemental composition of the beads and to infer their original color. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is able to distinguish the glass phase from the texture of the grains, giving information on the thickness of the glaze and of the buffer layer. Optical microscope gives us more details about the thickness and characterization of glaze layer.

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Textiles + Wooden Artifacts) Sofa, So Good...Conservation of a Mid-19th Century Children's Sofa
The conservation treatment of a small mid-19th century sofa with horsehair upholstery has been performed in this project, with the primary goals of: stabilization, reduction of visual disruption from damage, and retention of original material. This has involved utilizing fill materials and repairs where possible in contrast to traditional reupholstering techniques. Secondary to these goals, analysis and imaging have been performed in order to more closely understand the materials involved in the construction of the sofa, its intended purpose (likely as a child’s plaything), and in hopes of uncovering some of its history and origin. Analytical techniques such as: transmission Fourier transform infrared microscopy, pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and polarized light microscopy have helped to reveal information about the sofa’s materials. Imaging techniques such as: X-radiography, long wave ultraviolet radiation induced visible fluorescence, reflected infrared imaging, and imaging using a scanning electron microscope were also useful in this fashion and provided insights into date of construction, period of use, and repair history. Keywords: Children’s furniture conservation, mid-19th century sofas, haircloth, horsehair upholstery

Speakers
avatar for Daniel Kaping

Daniel Kaping

Graduate Intern in Objects Conservation, The Field Museum of Natural History
A third-year graduate student in the SUNY Buffalo State Art Conservation program specializing in objects conservation, Daniel is interested many types of materials. Drawn in particular to ethnographic, natural history, and archaeological collections, his current third year placement... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Jonathan Thornton

Jonathan Thornton

Conservation Professor, Patricia H. and Richard E. Garman Art Conservation Department State University of New York College at Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo State)
Jonathan Thornton has taught objects conservation at the Art Conservation Department since 1980. Following an earlier career as an artist/silversmith, he studied conservation in this department when it was still located in Cooperstown, NY, and received his M. A. and Certificate of... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Textiles + Wooden Artifacts) “A New Approach to an Old Problem: Comfort and Minimally Intrusive Upholstery”
In a museum setting, comfort is not a consideration in producing minimally intrusive upholstery. In fact, being uncomfortable guards against furniture use, particularly in a house museum setting. For private collectors who use their furniture in the home, however, this is unacceptable. For almost two decades, the standard approach has been to protect the fragile historic frame with a new, custom-fit, wooden, inner frame that can be upholstered instead to take the strain of traditional webbing, horsehair stuffing, and/or springs. This is more successful on larger furniture which can mask the weight and bulk of a supplementary frame and are often more deeply stuffed. Unfortunately, there have been few options for smaller furniture other than rigid plywood decks with a minimum of padding. Using a new technique, however, we have been able to apply a very conservative approach to delicate side chairs and reduce the number of fasteners and steps involved in producing remarkably comfortable upholstery compensation. This technique uses relief cuts in the thin plywood deck to create a spring effect which mimics the feel of traditional webbed upholstery. The impetus for this technique was the treatment of a set of twelve high-style dining chairs fabricated by Thomas Seymour in Boston c. 1810. These chairs were to be reupholstered with tufted leather seats and a stylish stitched French edge profile that was integral to their interpretation. This would be both labor-intensive and destructive to the frames in traditional upholstery. Adding a separate inner frame would protect the chair but make it heavy and even more costly. Instead a single layer plywood deck cut to be flexible in the center and accommodate the button ties was used to span over the seat rails. Using this new technique was simple, with the benefit of removing the strain and distortion often caused by taught webbing. The resulting conservation saved the client labor on each chair versus traditional upholstery, while also providing a comfortable, conservative, historically accurate compensation. The chairs have been in moderate use for over ten years now. A set of six Duncan Phyfe lotus-back dining chairs from about 1840 were conserved in our shop using the same technique. This set of curvilinear seats was able to be made functional using this technique in spite of the fact that the seat rails were so damaged from years of upholstery that the rails would have needed partial replacement to have been upholstered traditionally.

Speakers
avatar for Chris Shelton-[PA]

Chris Shelton-[PA]

Principal, Robert Mussey Associates, Inc.
Chris Shelton received his graduate degree in conservation from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Art Conservation Program. He worked for Colonial Williamsburg and for the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston on their modern and European collections as well as for the Bayou Bend Collection... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Textiles) Let there be light? An investigation into light-induced changes of the early synthetic aniline dye magenta under indoor lighting conditions
A major development of the 19th century was the discovery of synthetic textile dyes. The first group was the aniline or coal tar colors, derived originally from chemicals in tar products from combusted coal. These novel dyes gained popularity as they became more economical and efficient than natural dyes, in some instances created brighter and more striking colors. Magenta, also called fuchsine, was one of the first synthetic dyes to gain major commercial success. This vivid red-blue dye was on the market in 1859, the same year that Perkin’s mauveine, an aniline purple, eventually gained major commercial success.

Magenta proved popular for trims and costume embellishments, as well as whole garments. Despite being highly sensitive to light, magenta was desired and accepted as a fashion color until the end of the nineteenth century. It was also useful to the industrial dyers for shading. Today when conservators and curators consider displaying a mid- to late-19th century red-blue textile, there is an expectation is that the dye may be magenta and that the color could fade quickly.

Since light is essential for viewing color, striking the balance between preserving the textile color and providing object access is paramount. This also becomes problematic when the definition of “quick fading” is unclear. Additionally, accounts of magenta fading are historical and in regard to sunlight, not modern museum indoor lighting conditions. All this leads to us asking fundamental questions about the light-sensitivity of magenta in various museum-lighting environments, and how careful should we be when exposing these objects to light?

This paper presents a case study conducted at the University of Glasgow Centre for Textile Conservation and Technical Art History (CTCTAH). It investigates light-induced color and chemical changes of magenta dyed textiles exposed to indoor lighting environments typical within a collection setting. Silk and wool fabrics dyed with commercial magenta (basic form) were exposed in real-time to different scenarios for six weeks. Changes were measured using a spectrophotometer and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array detection (UHPLC-PDA). Results indicated that lighting, even in ‘safe’ workrooms and controlled displays can induce color and chemical changes in magenta. Knowledge and awareness that color and chemical changes are possible for magenta within a museum workroom environment are the first steps in addressing the problem of long-term preservation of these objects.

Speakers
avatar for Michelle Hunter

Michelle Hunter

Michelle Hunter is a recent graduate of the MPhil Textile Conservation program at the University of Glasgow Centre for Textile Conservation and Technical Art History (CTCTAH). She has worked in private conservation in the United States and was the 2017-2018 postgraduate intern in... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Anita Quye

Anita Quye

Senior Lecturer, Univeristy of Glasgow
Anita Quye is the CTCTAH Senior Lecturer for Conservation Science, with research interests in natural and synthetic dyes, and synthetic fibres and plastics. Prior to her academic post she was the organic analytical scientist at National Museums Scotland.

Saturday June 2, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:30pm

(Textiles) Ambient analysis of historic textiles by DART-MS
Ambient analysis methods are critical tools in the field of conservation. Direct analysis in real time- mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is a relatively new ambient analysis technique. The DART ion source utilizes a heated helium gas stream to desorb surface molecules on the sample which then enter a coupled high-resolution mass spectrometer. DART-MS has been used for many different applications, but recent literature in the field of conservation has focused on dye analysis of historic textiles. In this work, we present our data from DART-MS analysis of historic textiles in rare dye swatch books from the Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology collection. Our data suggests that DART-MS can detect compounds associated with textile processing, which may provide some insight into the complexity associated with historic textile production, use, and degradation. This presentation will discuss preliminary findings.

Speakers
avatar for Regina Baglia

Regina Baglia

Post-doctoral intern, Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution
Regina A. Baglia received her BS in biochemistry, magna cum laude from Temple University. She completed her PhD from Johns Hopkins in metallic complexes in porphyrin-type ligands that mimic biological oxidation reactions performed by metalloenzymes in 2016 with eleven co-authored... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Mary W. Ballard

Mary W. Ballard

Conservator, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
EducationB.A. Wellesley (1971)M.A. and Diploma in Conservation New York University Institute of Fine Arts (1979)Additional coursework: North Carolina State University, College of TextilesResearch Specialties and InterestsInterested in coloration of textiles and in the evidence of... Read More →
avatar for G. Asher Newsome

G. Asher Newsome

Physical Scientist, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
G. ASHER NEWSOME received his Ph.D. in analytical chemistry at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. He has studied a wide variety of analytes using novel mass spectrometry methodologies, and since joining the Smithsonian in 2017 he has been developing ambient techniques for... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 3:30pm - 4:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

Textile Conservation Tips Session
Saturday June 2, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston