Loading…

Log in to bookmark your favorites and sync them to your phone or calendar.

6. Specialty Session [clear filter]
Thursday, May 31
 

2:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) Fiber and Yarn Cross-section Sample Preparation Methods for Effective Plant Fiber Material Characterization and Identification
Fiber cross-section observation is often essential when characterizing and identifying plant fiber artifacts. A number of bast fibers and leaf fibers have very similar morphologies in the longitudinal direction but they differ more distinctively from each other in cross-section features. Most of the existing methods of fiber or yarn cross-section sample preparation, for either light or scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations, are not designed for handling fragile archaeological materials. The aim of this research project was to identify and develop effective fiber or yarn cross-section preparation methods which can be used for studying fragile archaeological textile objects. This study compared three fiber or yarn cross-section sample preparation methods for SEM observation including epoxy embedding, modified plastic fiber cross-section plate and free-hand as well as another three methods for light microscopic (LM) observation, including epoxy embedding and ultra-thin cross-sectioning, free-hand sectioning of embedded fiber or yarn sample and Precision Cross-section Microtome. All these methods were applied to the same archaeological textile remains retrieved from an early 16th century shipwreck site. Several known fiber or fiber plant samples were also studied for reference purposes, including hemp, jute, sisal, abaca, stinging nettle and flax. The SEM results showed that the adoption of a plastic cross-section plate designed for LM usage was the most effective fiber or yarn cross-section preparation method. The plate is cheap and easy to use. Either fiber or yarn samples can be placed into the 1-2 mm holes within the plastic plate using a known synthetic fiber as buffer or protection around the archaeological fiber sample. As to the three methods for LM observation, the most efficient method was free-hand sectioning of fiber or yarn embedded in common slide preparation solution. When dealing with very fragile sample, however, the best method was epoxy resin embedding and ultra-thin cross-sectioning (1 micrometer). This method minimizes sample distortion and keeps the sample intact. However, a phase contrast microscope is needed for observing and imaging the obtained ultra-thin cross-section samples. Based on all the cross-section images obtained from both archaeological textile samples and reference fibers or fiber plant samples, we recommend using yarns to prepare cross-section sample for either SEM or LM observation when possible. The cross-section of yarns could provide not only fiber information but also other plant tissue cell characteristics. The later can be critical when identifying a specific fiber plant. When studying very fragile archaeological textile material, we recommend the method of epoxy embedding and ultra-thin sectioning, although this method is most time consuming. The other two methods using plastic fiber cross-section plate for SEM observation and free-hand sectioning of embedded sample for LM observation are quick, easy, effective and applicable to most of textile materials. Finally, the results of this project demonstrated again that fiber cross-section study is essential when identifying and characterizing archaeological plant fiber artifacts.

Speakers
avatar for Runying Chen

Runying Chen

Professor/Educator, East Carolina University
RUNYING CHEN, Associate Professor. Dr. Chen received her Ph.D. in Human Ecology, majoring in textile science with concentration in analytical chemistry, in 1998 from the Ohio State University. She has been teaching at the Department of Interior Design and Merchandising of East Carolina... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Tom Fink

Tom Fink

Biology Department Imaging Laboratory Manager, East Carolina University
Tom Fink received his PhD from Florida State University. He manages Biology Department Imaging Laboratory, conducts and assists research projects using the laboratory facilities. Dr. Fink also teaches biology imaging courses for both undergraduate and graduate students at East Carolina... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) Untangling Indian Hemp: Understanding and Identifying Common Plant Fibers Used by Native Americans in the Woodlands Region
Bast fibers from North American plant species make up a significant portion of textiles produced by Woodlands cultures. These fibers, which are derived from the inner stems of certain plant species, are a traditional and important to many nations in the Northeast and Great Lakes region, yet have received little attention from Western-focused academia. Much of the literature and fiber identification is unclear, incorrect, or based on a Western perspective. Fibers are frequently referred to as “Indian Hemp,” which aside from being an inherently problematic term, has several meanings. This research aims to collaborate with Indigenous community members to identify traditional fiber producing plants and how they utilized to produce textiles. Three Native American experts in fiber preparation were invited to the National Museum of the American Indian Cultural Resource Center to share and discuss harvesting, processing and weaving, as well as the cultural and material significance of these fibers. As an outcome, a handling collection of physical samples as well as polarized light and scanning electron micrographs will be created to aid in understanding of both the macro and micro properties of these materials. The reference collections and appropriate associated cultural information are available to conservators, curators, and Native and non-Native researchers to improve accuracy of fiber identification, enhance material understanding, and reinforce cultural knowledge. Images will also be made available on online for wider access. By understanding both the physical and cultural context of materials, conservators can make more appropriate decisions about the care of our collections. Allowing indigenous voices to be the authority on their own cultural heritage not only begins the decolonization process of museums, but enriches the institution as well.

Speakers
avatar for Nora Frankel

Nora Frankel

Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Nora Frankel is an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian. Past work includes positions at the Rijksmuseum, Burrell Collection, Death Valley National Park, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, and... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Susan Heald

Susan Heald

Textile Conservator, National Museum of the American Indian
Susan Heald has been the National Museum of the American Indian’s textile conservator since 1994, where she has supervised many pre-program interns and post-graduate fellows. Prior to NMAI, she served as the Minnesota Historical Society’s textile conservator, and was a Smithsonian... Read More →
avatar for Thomas Lam

Thomas Lam

conservation scientist, Smithsonian Conservation Institute
Thomas Lam has a Ph.D. in Ceramics from Alfred University. After his PhD, Thomas completed a postdoc at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Thomas is a Physical Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute (MCI), where he applies his knowledge... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) The Norwich textile reference database, a collections care project
The city of Norwich, United Kingdom still produces beautiful and high-quality woolen textiles, although its heyday was between the 14th and 19th centuries. As a result of this active textile industry, garments and fabrics are found in numerous textile collections around the globe. In spite of its importance, information regarding dyes, mordants and technologies associated with dying practices in the city remain scarce. During the second half of the 18th century, when the trade of raw materials and finished goods was commonplace, merchant manufacturers used pattern books and cards containing textile swatches to facilitate sales and trade. Some of these outstandingly well-preserved pattern books survive. After thorough ethical conversations, a dye-and-mordant database incorporating chromatographic and spectroscopic data is being generated using samples from these pattern books. High-performance liquid chromatography – photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence (XRF), has allowed us to identify distinctive dye and mordant combinations, which, in parallel with collaborative historical and archival research, is aiding in understanding the industry’s practices. More importantly, this will ultimately support collections care by providing sound scientific information related to textiles’ constituent material properties, such as light and moisture sensitivity of certain color components.

Speakers
avatar for Dr. Jocelyn Alcantara Garcia

Dr. Jocelyn Alcantara Garcia

Assistant Professor, Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation
Jocelyn Alcántara-García joined the WUDPAC program in the fall of 2014 after working for about five years in interdisciplinary projects (predominantly in Mexico, where she was born). All projects were conducted in close collaboration with conservators and scientists, and included... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Michael Nix

Michael Nix

Independent Textile and Maritime Historian
Michael Nix obtained his PhD in maritime history at the Department of English Local History, Leicester University in 1991. He worked as the Research Manager for Transport and Technology in Major Projects and Research, Glasgow Museums, and has published books, papers and articles on... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) A sizable sooty soiled surface: Analyzing and evaluating methods for surface cleaning a large painted muslin
Throughout the documentation and treatment of an unusually large painted muslin, analytical methods helped to both characterize the object, and evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. Displayed at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, the muslin painted by Strike the Kettle (Lakota), a follower of Sitting Bull, depicts multiple scenes including gift giving, cooking, and warriors on horseback. The muslin was treated for the major long-term exhibition, Americans, at the National Museum of the American Indian. Previous extended display in the industrial urban centers of Chicago and New York City resulted in heavy, sooty, lead-containing surface soiling. Prominent tar-like stains in the center had haloed tidelines from an earlier treatment attempt. Pigments, binder, and stain residue were characterized using microscopy, portable x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), microscope-FTIR, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Analyses confirmed that common late 19th century trade pigments were used with a proteinaceous binder. All paint colors were evaluated for light stability using microfadeometry, revealing all but one were stable. The black stain was characterized as an oily resinous compound with surprisingly high lead levels. The treatment priority was to reduce the stain and its associated tideline, and disfiguring surface soiling. Vacuuming the muslin through Vellux fabric trapped significant soiling, however the visual impact was minimal requiring additional dry cleaning treatment. Of the four sponges evaluated, the vulcanized rubber soot sponge was most effective though somewhat abrasive based on cleaning tests, microscopy, FTIR, and pXRF. The need for multiple hands working simultaneously over a large surface area necessitated a systematic approach to ensure consistency. This cleaning methodology produced large quantities of heavily soiled Vellux and sponges, allowing for a thorough study of cleaning mechanisms and soiling characteristics. While the tar-like stain responded poorly to all solvents tested, ethanol and a suction platen successfully reduced the tidelines created by the previous treatment. The treatment methods dramatically improved the muslin’s appearance. Final pXRF analyses indicated the soot sponge was more effective at reducing overall lead levels than the use of a Vellux-covered vacuum alone. Portable XRF also detected lead levels on the used Vellux and soot sponges, but not the nitrile gloves, which had implications for material disposal as potential hazardous waste.

Speakers
avatar for Susan Heald

Susan Heald

Textile Conservator, National Museum of the American Indian
Susan Heald has been the National Museum of the American Indian’s textile conservator since 1994, where she has supervised many pre-program interns and post-graduate fellows. Prior to NMAI, she served as the Minnesota Historical Society’s textile conservator, and was a Smithsonian... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Nora Frankel

Nora Frankel

Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Nora Frankel is an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian. Past work includes positions at the Rijksmuseum, Burrell Collection, Death Valley National Park, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, and... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Gwénaëlle Kavich

Dr. Gwénaëlle Kavich

Conservation Scientist, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Gwénaëlle Kavich, Conservation Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute, earned a BSc in Chemistry from The Nottingham Trent University (U.K.) and a PhD in Chemical Sciences from the University of Pisa (Italy). She contributes to a wide range of technical studies... Read More →
avatar for Thomas Lam

Thomas Lam

conservation scientist, Smithsonian Conservation Institute
Thomas Lam has a Ph.D. in Ceramics from Alfred University. After his PhD, Thomas completed a postdoc at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Thomas is a Physical Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute (MCI), where he applies his knowledge... Read More →
avatar for Nicole Little

Nicole Little

Physical Scientist, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Nicole Little is a Physical Scientist at the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum Conservation Institute. She received both her B.A. and M.A. in Anthropology from the University of Missouri-Columbia, where her master’s research dealt with the compositional analysis of Mayan ceramics... Read More →
avatar for Annaick Parker

Annaick Parker

collections contractor, Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum
Annaick Keruzec is a textile conservator who currently works at the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum (ACM) as a collections specialist focusing on photographically illustrated quilts and a rehousing project. From 2015-2017 she was an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow at the Smithsonian... Read More →
avatar for Megan Doxsey Whitfield

Megan Doxsey Whitfield

Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Object Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Megan Doxsey-Whitfield is currently a Mellon Fellow in Objects Conservation at the National Museum of the American Indian. She is a graduate of the Queen’s University Master of Art Conservation program (MAC ’15) and holds a Bachelor of Arts in Art History from the University of... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) Roundtable Discussion
When TSG and RATS began planning a joint session for the 2018 annual meeting, we met with some resistance because AIC records suggested that there were no individuals who were members of both specialty groups.  We've learned since that this is both not true (two of our panelists are members of both) and it's definitely not the case that no one in TSG is doing research, nor because no conservation scientists are interested in textiles. But how can we increase the interactions and strengthen ties between our two groups? 

In this panel discussion you will hear from a conservator in a major museum, a current professor, a retired professor and a conservator in private practice. Each will bring a different approach to this topic and offer advice and anecdotes on how they bridge the gap between research and textiles in their profession. Topics of discussion will include: what makes for a good and successful research project? Do all projects have to involve big questions and fancy scientific equipment?  How can keeping an open mind, and questioning assumptions lead to new discoveries?   What makes projects work?  What makes projects not work?  We hope that this panel will help our communities forge connections, learn from successes and failures and encourage each other.  Audience participation in the form of an open question and answer session will follow.
Panelists:
  • Dr. Margaret Ordoñez, Professor Emerita, Textiles, Fashion Merchandising, and Design, University of Rhode Island; Conservator, Ordoñez Textile Conservation Services, Camden, TN
  • Mary W. Ballard, Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Senior Textiles Conservator, Suitland, Maryland
  • Gwen Spicer, Spicer Art Conservation, LLC
  • Dr. Nancy Odegaard, Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

Speakers
avatar for Mary W. Ballard

Mary W. Ballard

Conservator, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
EducationB.A. Wellesley (1971)M.A. and Diploma in Conservation New York University Institute of Fine Arts (1979)Additional coursework: North Carolina State University, College of TextilesResearch Specialties and InterestsInterested in coloration of textiles and in the evidence of... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, University of Arizona
Nancy Odegaard is the Head of the Preservation Division at the Arizona State Museum on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson where she is also a professor with the Department of Material Science & Engineering, the School of Anthropology, and the Drachman Institute (historic... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Margaret T. Ordoñez

Dr. Margaret T. Ordoñez

Scientist/Researcher, Ordoñez Textile Conservation Services
Taught textile conservation classes in the graduate programs at Kansas State University and the University of Rhode Island; retired from URI in 2017 and set up Tenasi Textile Conservation Services in Tennessee. MS and PhD in textiles and clothing departments at the University of Tennessee... Read More →
avatar for Gwen Spicer-[Fellow]

Gwen Spicer-[Fellow]

Conservator, Spicer Art Conservation, LLC
Gwen Spicer is a Textile, Upholstery, Paper, and Objects Conservator, and full-time principal of Spicer Art Conservation, LLC, conveniently located in upstate New York. She received her Master’s degree from the Art Conservation Program at Buffalo State College, State University... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 6:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston
 
Friday, June 1
 

8:30am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) All that Glitters: Visualizing and Characterizing Gold Leaf through Macro-XRF Scanning
The application of gold leaf is ubiquitous in late medieval painting, but our knowledge of how it was applied is based largely on historical treatises and modern practice. Analytical techniques traditionally applied to the study of historic works of art, such as X-radiography and point-analysis x-ray fluorescence (XRF), identify only the presence and elemental composition of the metal leaf at a single point, respectively. MA-XRF scanning has opened up a new avenue of research into the study of gilding materials and techniques by providing unprecedented new insight into visualizing the dimensions of individual gold leaves, differences in how the leaf was applied by various artists and workshops, and the variability of gold leaf alloy compositions available. In addition to elucidating the original artistic creative process, MA-XRF can identify and map restoration interventions using gold leaf, thereby providing new documentation of historic conservation or restoration efforts. Statistical measurement of the dimensions of individual gold leaves provides a new tool for supporting or refuting links between separated components of altarpieces. This poster presents the results of studies from a number of paintings and manuscript illuminations that demonstrate the ability of MA-XRF to elucidate new information about the composition of metal leaf, its application, and its past conservation.

Speakers
avatar for Douglas MacLennan

Douglas MacLennan

Research Lab Associate, Getty Conservation Institute
Douglas MacLennan joined the Technical Studies research laboratory at the Getty Conservation Institute in 2016. His work focuses on the technical examination of works of art in collaboration with both conservators and curators. His research interests include the use of XRF and multispectral... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Nathan Daly

Nathan Daly

Postdoctoral Fellow, Getty Conservation Institute
avatar for Arlen Heginbotham

Arlen Heginbotham

Conservator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture, J. Paul Getty Museum
Arlen Heginbotham received his A.B. in East Asian Studies from Stanford University and his M.A. in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College. He is currently Conservator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture at the J. Paul Getty Museum. Arlen’s research interests include the history... Read More →
avatar for Lynn Lee

Lynn Lee

Assistant Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Lynn Lee received her PhD in physical chemistry from the University of California Berkeley. Her current areas of research include the study of traditional—especially those used in antiquities—and modern artist materials and techniques using non- or minimally invasive analytical... Read More →
avatar for Catherine Schmidt Patterson

Catherine Schmidt Patterson

Associate Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Catherine Schmidt Patterson received her PhD in physical chemistry at Northwestern University. Her primary areas of research are the use of non- or minimally invasive techniques such as Raman microspectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, technical imaging to study works of art... Read More →
avatar for Yvonne Szafran

Yvonne Szafran

Senior Conservator, J Paul Getty Museum
avatar for Karen Trentelman

Karen Trentelman

Senior Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Karen Trentelman is head of Technical Studies research, which focuses on the scientific study of works of art to further the understanding and preservation of these works in collaboration with conservators and curators. Current areas of interest include: revealing hidden layers in paintings and manuscripts using noninvasive spectro... Read More →
avatar for Nancy Turner

Nancy Turner

Conservator, J. Paul Getty Museum

Friday June 1, 2018 8:30am - 9:00am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) A contribution toward the identification of wood by heart-cut pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry.
This paper presents a novel method for conducting wood identification based on chemical analysis using heart-cut pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HC-Py-GC/MS) to analyze volatile fractions and thermal decomposition products from finely divided wood samples. This method has several advantages over traditional anatomical identification including a significantly reduced sample size (0.3 mg of powder vs. more than 40 mg for traditional thin anatomical sections), and increased ease of sampling. The method also shows promise for successfully discriminating between species that are not separable by anatomical methods. The use of an established analytical technique that is widely found in conservation science laboratories should make this method readily accessible to many researchers in the cultural heritage sector. The use of user-friendly and commercially available software for the evaluation of the GC/MS data also makes it possible to develop a reference database that can be easily shared and referenced by collaborating researchers. Evolved gas analysis (EGA) was used to establish an optimized furnace temperature that minimizes the production of compounds from the pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose while maximizing the contribution of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and extractives, which are more likely to be characteristic of specific species. The use of a selective sampler system further reduces cellulosic contributions to the chromatograms by diverting evolved gases away from the GC column after 30 seconds of sample residence in the pyrolyzer. Results were interpreted through comparison with reference standards utilizing F-Search from Frontier Laboratories, which is software commonly used for the identification of polymeric materials and additives in plastics. The software produces a weighted average of the mass spectra of all integrated components in a chromatogram (an INT-SUM spectrum), which can be matched against an established library of standards. Comparison of the chromatograms and statistical evaluation of the INT-SUM spectra by F-Search provided accurate results and eliminated the need for specific compound identification, thus rapidly increasing the speed of data interpretation. F-Search also allows for the exclusion of peaks, which is a feature used to eliminate problematic peaks produced by contaminants such as glues, varnishes or waxes. For this preliminary study, reference samples of 62 wood species commonly found in decorative arts collections were analyzed with the optimized HC-Py-GC/MS method. The resulting chromatograms and INT-SUM spectra were compiled in a reference library. The method was validated by analyzing samples taken from 17th – 19th century objects within the J. Paul Getty Museum collection and comparing the results to identifications made through traditional anatomical study. All of the samples were correctly identified through the combined use of the F-search ranking system and visual comparison of the chromatograms.

Speakers
avatar for Arlen Heginbotham

Arlen Heginbotham

Conservator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture, J. Paul Getty Museum
Arlen Heginbotham received his A.B. in East Asian Studies from Stanford University and his M.A. in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College. He is currently Conservator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture at the J. Paul Getty Museum. Arlen’s research interests include the history... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Jessica Chasen

Jessica Chasen

Assistant Conservator, The J. Paul Getty Museum
Jessica Chasen is an assistant conservator in Decorative Arts and Sculpture Conservation at the J. Paul Getty Museum. Jessica earned an M.S. in Art Conservation from Winterthur / University of Delaware with a specialization in objects conservation and a minor in painted surfaces... Read More →
avatar for Michael R. Schilling

Michael R. Schilling

Senior Scientist, Yale Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage
Michael Schilling is head of Materials Characterization research at the Getty Conservation Institute, which focuses on development of analytical methods for studying classes of materials used by artists and conservators. He specializes in gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) Interdisciplinary and Multi-Technique Study of Previous Conservation, Bending Media, and Pigments of a Painted Polychrome Coffin from the Late Period
This paper describes the scientific investigations of an Ancient Egyptian painted wooden coffin, dating back to late period (664-332 BC). The polychrome coffin was previously restored, and previous plaster fills obscured original surface. The focus of this study is to use a multi-analytical approach to map and identify the pigments used on a polychrome wooden coffin , as well as to provide a deeper understanding of the painting techniques, the condition of the object, identification of wood species, identification of insects founded inside coffin, previous conservation materials, ground layer and painted layer included in this study. Several analytical and observation methods were employed in the identification processes such as the Light optical microscopy (OM), X-ray fluorescence portable (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Moreover, the application of technical photography provided useful information about the spatial distribution of the surviving original pigments, in particular visible-induced luminescence, which played an important role to recognize spatial distribution of areas containing Egyptian blue, even if it is in traces or mixed with other pigments, the authors were significantly interested in mapping technical photography (TP) including IR false color with XRF results as a non destructive methods to identify coffin pigments. Red pigment identified as Cinnabar, and recorded as a rare pigment found in late period collections. Key words: painted wooden coffin; Multispectral imaging; XRF; wood identification; Cinnabar

Speakers
avatar for M. Moustafa

M. Moustafa

Scientific Conservator, Grand Egyptian Museum
Licence in Archaeology from Cairo University, Faculty of Archeology, Conservation Departement , 2010 ,now he is master student specialized in conservation of wooden artifacts and working in his master about (Treatment and Conservation gilded and painted wooden artifacts with application... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr. Medhat Abdallah

Dr. Medhat Abdallah

Head, Wood Laboratory, Grand Egyptian Museum, Conservation Center, Ministry of Antiquities
Dr. Medhat abd allah abd elhamid, Director of Conservation for the Sqqara Collection, is a specialist in conservation of wooden artifacts. He has published many papers and posters in international periodicals and conferences and shared as an Egyptian expert in the joint conservation... Read More →
avatar for Ahmed Abdrabou

Ahmed Abdrabou

Conservator, Wood Laboratory, Grand Egyptian Museum, Conservation Center, Ministry of Antiquities
Ahmed Abdrabou is conservator at the Wood Laboratory, Grand Egyptian Museum, Conservation Centre (GEM.CC), Ministry of Antiquities, Egypt. Ahmed carried out several treatments on many museum objects, in particular the collection of King Tutankhamun. He is currently the head of documentation... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Hussein M. Kamal

Dr. Hussein M. Kamal

Technical Affairs, Grand Egyptian Museum, Conservation Center
Hussein M. Kamal, PhD in Conservation of Antiquities, is the General Director of Conservation Technical Affairs at the Grand Egyptian Museum, Egypt. He has published extensively in different conservation aspects and presented lots of issues in international conferences and congresses... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 10:00am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) Another Look at Conserving a Japanned High Chest
A growing awareness of East Asian influence in our Western world has spurred a reconsideration of many of the rare American Japanned objects from the first half of the 18th century. Among these is a sometimes celebrated high chest in the Art Museums collection at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (CWF). One of only about 15 such Japanned forms known, the bulk of the artistic merit of the cabinet lies in the decoration attributed to Robert Davis of Boston, around the 1730’s. Because the iconography of these—mainly Boston made—Japanned objects continues to be something of a mystery among many decorative arts scholars, the material make up has become the obvious necessary foundation to our understanding of such mannerist artistic expressions. In this paper the CWF high chest is presented with an eye toward understanding the original materials and design intent, as well as the reinterpretation of some of these lost and poorly restored elements. Like many of its cousins, this Japanned cabinet has seen several campaigns of restoration in its lifetime. With time, the raised ornament seems to have failed in many of these surfaces and the multiple restorations appear to have veered further from the maker’s vision with each campaign. Some attention will be paid to the choices of material and technique in the restorative process as well. The study and analyses that preceded the on-going treatment featured photography with visible light, ultra-violet, Infra-red, and x-ray. Analyses for materials identification featured X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM with EDX, and visible and fluorescence cross-section microscopy. Combining the findings from these analytical techniques has provided a fairly comprehensive picture of the materials in the surface decoration. They have also revealed a few surprises in makeup, as well as a much-needed road map for the treatment protocol. The project reflects a vital collaboration between the CWF Analytical Lab and Wood Artifacts Lab. Insights gleaned from this exploration and treatment will hopefully inspire other owners to reconsider their objects with the hope of new exhibits and a better understanding of interpretation.

Speakers
avatar for Christopher Swan

Christopher Swan

Senior Conservator, Furniture, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Chris is a furniture and wooden artifacts Conservator at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in Virginia where he has been since February, 1999, and where he also completed his third-year graduate internship, and a Getty post-graduate internship from 1994-1996. In between positions... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Kirsten Moffitt-[PA]

Kirsten Moffitt-[PA]

Conservator & Materials Analyst, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Kirsten Travers Moffitt is a conservator of painted surfaces with a specialty in the microscopy and analysis of historic finishes. She received her B.F.A. in Fine Art from the State University of New York at Purchase in 1997, and spent the next eleven years working as a decorative... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) Bringing back color: Retouching faded furniture with colored light
Throughout the centuries organic colorants, both from natural and synthetic origin, were used to stain wood. This application lead to vivid colored objects of which the wood texture is still visible. Colorants can be applied over the complete surface of an object or used especially for marquetry, resulting in multi-colored objects. In addition to the coloring of wood, the natural color of unstained wood plays also an important role in the overall appearance of furniture. The main disadvantage of the use of organic colorants is the fact that they can severely fade in time, this is also true for the natural color of wood. As a consequence, the original appearance is lost to such extent that many museum visitors are not even aware of the fact that numerous pieces of furniture were originally colored; the visitors appreciate the natural, discolored wood and knowledge of how these objects originally looked like is sometimes completely ignored. To obtain knowledge about the original appearance is a great challenge, and it is good to realize that we will never be able to get the ‘exact’ colors right. However, more insight is required to be able to come as close as possible to the original intention of the makers of these objects. To revive this knowledge is only possible with an integrated approach. With this presentation, this integrated approach will be discussed. The research involves chemical analysis of the faded material, which is a challenge on its own, to identify the colorants used. The next step is the study of historical recipes and the creation of reconstructions (small mock-ups) based on these recipes to obtain more knowledge of the range of colors possible with the materials used. Degradation research is carried out on some of these colorants to understand their behavior. Finally, faded pieces of furniture were retouched using colored light, projecting a computer image via a beamer on the object in which the faded colors were revived. Although a promising technique, with possibilities to show these original vibrant objects to a large audience, questions arise about the accuracy of the reconstructed colors and the possible change in artistic value. However, it stimulates the discussion between curators, conservators and scientists about the possibilities and limitation of this technique and how to present the objects to the museum audience. Two case studies will be discussed. A group of objects designed by the Dutch architect Piet Kramer in the 1930’s which were originally stained with brilliant synthetic dyes and are now heavily discolored were accurately examined and these results will be presented. In addition, preliminary results will be discussed about the retouching of a much more complicated 18th century commode created by Andries Bongen.

Speakers
avatar for Prof. Dr. Maarten R. van Bommel

Prof. Dr. Maarten R. van Bommel

Professor of Conservation Science, University of Amsterdam, conservation and restoration of cultural heritage
Maarten van Bommel is professor of conservation science at the university of Amsterdam, were he held a position both at the faculty of Humanities and the faculty of Science. He is chair of the section conservation and restoration of cultural heritage were future conservators / restorers... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Federica van Adrichem

Federica van Adrichem

Trainee in conservation and restoration of cultural heritage, University of Amsterdam
JB

Jaap Boonstra

Conservator wood and furniture, Amsterdam museum

Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 12:00pm
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston
 
Saturday, June 2
 

10:00am

(Research and Technical Studies) The human endeavour: when source communities, conservators and scientists collaborate
When science and material cultural heritage collaborate, the study may be called archaeometry, technical art history, conservation science, or taphonomy. The research may be about the artist’s technique, tools, or component materials; or it may focus on specific techniques such as dating objects, non-destructive analysis; or it may be about the decomposition of materials during the period from deposition to discovery, or it may be focus on the predicting the future preservation risk to objects of art, archaeology, architecture. When conservators work with source communities, it may be called a consultation, collaboration, or contribution. The role of conservators and conservation scientists is very important. This presentation will share examples that illustrate their value when working with source communities under different circumstances.  

Speakers
avatar for Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, University of Arizona
Nancy Odegaard is the Head of the Preservation Division at the Arizona State Museum on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson where she is also a professor with the Department of Material Science & Engineering, the School of Anthropology, and the Drachman Institute (historic... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Research and Technical Studies) Big Things Come in Small Packages: The Materials Analysis Lab at Colonial Williamsburg and its Impact Throughout the Foundation
In 2014, the Conservation Department at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (CWF) established its first-ever Materials Analysis Laboratory to serve the needs of the Foundation’s conservators, curators, architectural historians, and historic area tradespeople. Current instrumentation includes an upright microscope for cross-section and polarized light microscopy, a handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF), an infrared microspectrometer coupled with a conventional light microscope, and a desktop scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The creation of this lab at CW was made possible through donor funds coupled with recent advancements in analytical technologies which have led to the development of smaller, more compact instruments with comparable sensitivities to their larger counterparts at relatively affordable prices and with more intuitive, user-friendly software. (This lecture will include a special review of the IR microspectrometer and desktop SEM-EDS for those who may be interested in the advantages and disadvantages of these smaller instruments). Most analyses are carried out by the Foundation’s first-ever Materials Analyst, allowing the conservators to focus on their busy treatment schedules. However, with minimal training conservators can use instruments for their own research, as time allows. The Materials Analysis Laboratory has been a major contribution to the work of conservation staff. Case studies will illustrate some of the straight-forward ways in which having on-site analysis has been an advantage – from minimizing the time spent on empirical materials testing for the reversal of a modern glass repair, or the characterization of exhibit fabrics to assess their eligibility for dyeing. We have found, across the board, that this leads to more effective assessments, treatments, and the development of more appropriate storage environments. Another department that has embraced the lab is our historic trades program. CWF tradespeople are not simply actors – they are artisans and scholars dedicated to better understanding and mastering 18th c. tools and technologies. Collaborations between the lab with historic trades, using museum collection objects as subjects, makes CW a unique resource for material studies. Tradespeople use historically accurate materials whenever possible and they practice their craft in view of the public, providing opportunities for outreach and education relating to the role of analysis at CWF. Case studies will illustrate the variety of ways in which the lab has contributed to their work – including the study of 18th c. felt hats to identify animal fiber blends for our historic area hat-maker, to determining the color and composition of paints used on 18th and 19th c. tin lanterns in our collection that would be replicated by our tin shop for use in the historic area. As historic area tradespeople engage with the public, they often discuss the evidence provided by scientific analysis. This juxtaposition of modern technology within an 18th century setting gives our guests an unforgettable visitor experience and a new appreciation for the depth of our research.

Speakers
avatar for Kirsten Moffitt-[PA]

Kirsten Moffitt-[PA]

Conservator & Materials Analyst, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Kirsten Travers Moffitt is a conservator of painted surfaces with a specialty in the microscopy and analysis of historic finishes. She received her B.F.A. in Fine Art from the State University of New York at Purchase in 1997, and spent the next eleven years working as a decorative... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Research and Technical Studies) Investigating Conservation Materials for Painted PMMA: Comparing Aging Environment Impact with Nano Thermal Analysis
Nano Thermal Analysis (nano-TA) and Dynamic Load Thermal Mechanical Analysis (DL TMA) were used to investigate glass transition temperature (Tg) behaviour of aged butyl methacrylate resins proposed as conservation materials for painted PMMA. Samples of the resin mixture 1:1 Paraloid B-67 / Paraloid F-10 (poly isobutyl methacrylate / poly n butyl methacrylate, or piBMA / pnBMA) were aged in six environments involving cycles of UV filtered museum light, or elevated temperatures, and stored with the control samples in dark ambient conditions for 20 years.

Nano-TA is useful when characterizing multi-layered polymer films and varnish mediums. The technique allows local characterization of thermal properties at nanoscale resolution, which is beneficial when investigating photo-degradation of surfaces, and differences between surface Tg and sample-averaged Tg from bulk material. The nano thermal probe enables rapid multiple measurements, 40 in this study, to characterize the sample surface; and while the probe will alter the surface locally at the nanoscale, unlike bulk thermal analysis techniques, the samples are not destroyed.

Nano-TA revealed a trend in the surface Tg of the BMA medium related to the aging environments, even though there were no apparent changes to the appearance, color, or transparency of the samples; DL TMA identified a similar trend in the sample-averaged Tg of the bulk material. The Tg of two sets of samples presents a compelling warning when considering BMA mediums for use as conservation materials for painted PMMA. The samples exposed to ambient levels of artificial museum light for 16 weeks had a higher Tg than the dark-aged control samples. The samples exposed to UV filtered sunlight through a museum window for 14 weeks had a higher Tg than samples exposed to an equivalent dose of artificial museum light. The rise in Tg of these samples suggests photo-degradation, increased polymer cross-linking, decreased solubility, and altered long-term stability after a relatively short period of light exposure equivalent to the length of a temporary exhibition in a museum or historic property. The apparent increase in Tg of the aged BMA samples suggests long-term instability and sensitivity to museum lighting and elevated temperatures, which are properties that may influence conservation applications on painted PMMA. The apparent association between increased Tg and environmental conditions may prove useful also in the development of preservation strategies for art and design containing BMA mediums.

In this study, nano-TA contributed to the understanding of BMA aging when used as an artists’ or conservation material, and to the development of assessment methodologies and preservation strategies involving artificial and natural aging.

Speakers
avatar for Donald Sale

Donald Sale

Art Conservation & Research, Art Conservation & Research
Don is an accredited conservator of ICON (UK) involved in collaborative research and museum projects, advising and investigating aging, conservation, and repair materials for plastics in art and design, advising on collections care and display, and the conservation of contemporary... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr. Angelica Bartoletti

Dr. Angelica Bartoletti

Research Conservation Scientist, Tate
Dr Angelica Bartoletti is a conservation scientist at TATE for the NANORESTART project. She has completed her PhD at University College London (UCL). Her research interests include the evaluation of the impact of traditional and innovative conservation treatments for cellulose and... Read More →
avatar for Dr Laurant Bozec

Dr Laurant Bozec

Associate Professor in Biophysics and Nanometrology, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London
Laurent Bozec is Associate Professor in Biophysics and Nanometrology at the Eastman Dental Institute, University College London. The major part of his research portfolio involves the characterisation at the nanoscale of connective and mineralised tissues in view to improve both... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Marianne Odlyha

Dr. Marianne Odlyha

Director of Physical Sciences Programme, Thermal Analysis Laboratory Manager Conservation and Art Preservation Laboratory Academic Lead, Department of Biological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Research and Technical Studies) The use of nano-indentation to mechanically characterize embedded artists’ materials
The Managing Collection Environments initiative at the Getty Conservation Institute focuses on research questions and practical issues relating to the control and management of collection environments in museums. Providing an evidence-base for the effect of environmental conditions on historic materials has long been a challenge for the conservation field, due to both the inherent complexity of the materials and the uncertainty in the mechanisms at play in environmentally-induced change. Understanding the mechanical properties of cultural heritage materials is a fundamental aspect of establishing effective preservation methods. Conventionally, the mechanical characterization of artists’ materials is performed by uniaxial or biaxial tensile testing and typically requires a large quantity of macro-sized samples. Having access to sufficient numbers of historic materials that satisfy this sample size requirement is impractical if not impossible when working with museum collections. As a consequence, the applicability of macro-mechanical testing in the conservation science can be limited. In contrast, small scale engineering techniques such as micro- and nano-indentation allow for the characterization of sub-millimeter samples taken from real works of art, rather than relying wholly upon much larger laboratory-prepared samples intended to mimic historic materials. These engineering techniques open a new perspective on the systematic analysis of the probabilistic distribution of mechanical properties of artists’ materials. They also allow for the analysis of ageing factors which can alter the mechanical properties of a material. The primary focus of this study is the application of micro- and nano-indentation to investigate the effect of an embedding process on the mechanical properties of cross-sectional samples of acrylic-based paint. As a precursor to the analysis of historic samples, a systematic investigation of embedded samples was performed to assess the role of sample size, surface roughness and structural compliance of the embedding resin. Material characterization was conducted at ambient laboratory conditions using an Ultra-High Resolution Nanoindentation Tester (Anton Paar) equipped with a Berkovich (three-sided pyramidal) diamond indenter. Load–displacement tests were carried out on embedded and free-film samples to evaluate the quasi-static and dynamic behavior of the acrylic-based paint to better understand its deformation response. Mechanical parameters which are used for describing the stiffness of a material, such as the elastic behavior of a material (storage modulus) and the ability of the material to deform under constant load (creep), were obtained for cross-sectional samples and compared with results for the acrylic free-film. Results indicate that instrumented indentation can be successfully used as a stepping stone towards an improved understanding of mechanical properties of embedded artists’ materials and, consequently, allow one to better define the conservation needs of art objects.

Speakers
avatar for Ashley Freeman

Ashley Freeman

Research Lab Associate, Getty Conservation Institute
Ashley Freeman joined the GCI in 2016 to work on the Managing Collections Environments Initiative. She graduated from Queen's University with a M.A.C. in Conservation Science, received a study certificate for restoration and conservation from the Lorenzo de' Medici, MS in Chemistry... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Vincent L. Beltran

Vincent L. Beltran

Assistant Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Vincent Beltran joined GCI Science in 2002. He has been an active participant in a range of research projects including the mechanical characterization of historic materials, the effect of reduced oxygen environments on color change, evaluations of packing case performance during... Read More →
avatar for Michał Lukomski

Michał Lukomski

Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Dr. Michał Lukomski is head of Preventive Conservation research, which assesses the effects of environmental conditions and lighting on museum objects. He received his PhD in physics from the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland, in 2003 and completed his postdoctorate fellowship... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies) A Collaborative Study of Sari Dienes’ Plaster Works
Sari Dienes, a highly innovative 20th century female artist working in a range of media, has gone largely unrecognized until recently despite the documented influence she had on her male contemporaries including Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns. Since the recent re-discovery of her impact on the 20th century art scene, museums and collectors have begun to acquire her artwork, including a series of mixed-media pieces utilizing plaster casts of manhole covers. In 2016, the Kunstmuseum Basel purchased Snowflake Circle, while the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (VMFA) acquired Star Circle, with the goal of finally exhibiting this important yet overlooked artist’s work.

As Dienes’ sculptures had not been previously studied, her materials and techniques were almost entirely unknown. Preparation of these artworks for exhibition provided the first ever opportunity to carry out a technical study of Dienes’ plaster cast assemblage pieces. Without published research to refer to, conservators at the Kunstmuseum Basel proposed a collaboration with the VMFA to share information gathered from the study of each of their two works. Conservators at each institution examined their respective artworks and performed a range of analyses including FTIR, XRF, UV imaging, X-Radiography, and microscopy. A broken manhole cover cast from the same series that was housed in the archives of the Sari Dienes’ foundation was also examined. The information gathered from this collaborative study was used to inform two key questions: 1) How do Dienes’ plaster casts fit into a greater art historical context? And 2) How to stabilize these two artworks for exhibition?

While both museums were eager to install their newly acquired Dienes artworks, examination of Star Circle and Snowflake Circle after removal of their gallery frames revealed a range of condition issues affecting their stability, including a bowing polystyrene foam board support and flaking plaster. The collaborative research project guided the stabilization efforts with the goal of finally presenting these works in the museum next to the male artists she inspired.

In addition to aiding in the stabilization of the two artworks, this research also informed the curatorial question regarding the role Dienes played in the adoption of plaster casts as a component in mixed media artworks. Materials analysis and archival research offered new insight into the possible chronology for Dienes’ plaster cast assemblage works, thus helping to elucidate her role in the history of art.

Speakers
avatar for Ainslie Harrison-[Fellow]

Ainslie Harrison-[Fellow]

Assistant Conservator, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
Ainslie Harrison is an Assistant Objects Conservator at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and previously worked at the National Museum of American History as a project conservator. She received her MA in Art Conservation from Queen’s University in 2008 and went on to hold fellowships... Read More →

Co-Authors
AF

Annette Fritsch

Conservator and Restorer of Paintings and Sculptures, Kunstmuseum Basel
Annette Fritsch is a conservator and restorer for paintings and sculptures at the Kunstmuseum Basel. She obtained her diploma in 2006 at the University of Applied Science at Bern. At the Kunstmuseum Basel she works on artworks from after 1945, including paintings, sculptures, and... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Research and Technical Studies) Colors of Jazz: Identification of the colorants in Henri Matisse gouaches using a noninvasive approach
In the last two decades of his extraordinary career, Henri Matisse created a remarkable body of work known as the Cut-Outs. He worked intensively with scissors and sheets of papers painted with vibrant gouaches, cutting shapes that he would then assemble to recreate lively figurative or abstract compositions. One of the earliest and most emblematic works of that period is the Jazz illustrated book published in 1947 by Tériade, a renowned editor of artist books in Paris. Matisse began creating the twenty circus themed cut-outs to be used as maquettes for the book in 1943. He insisted the vibrant colors of the cut-outs should be translated into the printed book, and this was ultimately achieved by the printer Vairel using Linel gouaches and the pochoir printing process. Hardly any information has been reported or published however about the composition of these particular gouaches or their properties, in particular their lightfastness; even though the artist himself was aware of the fragility of some of the colors like the pinks and the violets. In the preparation stages of a major exhibition at MoMA in 2014 dedicated to Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs, the conservation department received the generous donation of a “reference set” of seventy nine samples taken from leftovers of original painted papers preserved by the artist’s family and representing presumably the full range of colors he used. This set of reference samples was submitted to an exhaustive analysis to identify and characterize all the colorants present, to evaluate their lightfastness by microfading, and to build a reference library of spectral fingerprints acquired by XRF, FTIR, Raman, FT-Raman, SERS, ATR-FTIR, micro-FTIR, reflectance-FTIR and reflectance visible spectrophotometry. This study set is also being used to devise and validate a noninvasive protocol for the identification of the colorants in actual Cut-Outs. The current noninvasive methodology was applied to examine the nineteen different colors in the Jazz portfolio of twenty pochoirs in the MoMA collection. Most of the colorants present were identified successfully based on species or elemental markers detected by reflectance-FTIR, XRF analysis and spectrophotometry. Obtained results nevertheless reveal that a few of the colors that are repeated across different plates have the same tonality, but contain different colorants, suggesting that gouaches from different manufacturers were potentially used. Moreover, not all the gouaches in the Jazz portfolio could be matched to samples in the reference set, implying that it is incomplete. The reference spectral libraries compiled so far is therefore being expanded by studying other Cut-Outs in the MoMA collection and in other institutions, and by analyzing pure gouaches taken from paint tubes or paint brochures from the same period.

Authors in Publication Order: Ana  Martins, Tiffany Tang,  Abedalnour Haddad 

Speakers
avatar for Ana Martins

Ana Martins

Conservation Scientist, MoMA
Ana Martins is a Conservation Scientist working in the MoMA Conservation Department since 2008. She has a degree and a PhD in Chemistry from the University of Oporto in Portugal where she taught Analytical Chemistry and Instrumental Analysis as a Professor of the Faculty of Science... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Abed Haddad

Abed Haddad

Graduate Student, The Graduate Center, CUNYnCity College of New York, CUNY
Abed Haddad is graduate student pursuing a doctoral degree in Chemistry from the Graduate Center at the City University of New York. He has a B.S. in chemistry and minor in art history from Millsaps College in Jackson, MS. He works primarily with Raman spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced... Read More →
avatar for Tiffany Tang

Tiffany Tang

Chemistry Student, New York University
Tiffany Tang is a senior at New York University, where she is pursuing a BSc in Chemistry with minors in Art History and Philosophy. In 2017, she was a summer intern in the Department of Conservation at the Museum of Modern Art where she worked on projects in conservation science... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies) Tracing back: How trace elements in smalt and ultramarine used by 17th century Dutch artist Jan Steen, start to shed light on the chronology of his oeuvre
Jan Steen (c. 1625-1679) is one of the best-known artists of the Dutch Golden Age. Although he painted many different subjects, he is most famous for his genre paintings with merry companies. One key feature of his extensive oeuvre remains elusive: its chronology. Only 10% of his works were dated by the artist. Steen was prolific, he worked in different cities, and his painting style and techniques varied. This has made dating his paintings complex and problematic. Jan Steen’s oeuvre of about 400 paintings provides a unique opportunity to mesh traditional art history with new investigative techniques to reconstruct the chronology of his work and gain more insight into the materials and techniques he used over the years. The research started with the fifteen paintings by Jan Steen in the collection of the Mauritshuis. They are nicely spread out over the years that Jan Steen has been active. This group of paintings is enlarged with researching dated paintings in his oeuvre from other collections, with the aim of using these as a marker for the rest of his oeuvre. So far 37 paintings by Jan Steen have been studied in depth. This number is still growing, and complemented with the study of paintings by his contemporaries from the cities where he worked. Our hypothesis is that he influenced, and was influenced by the artists around him, and that he may have adapted his materials and techniques to local artistic traditions. In addition to the infrared photos and X-rays, a small number of paint samples have been taken from the paintings, and analyzed with SEM-EDX. Various point measurements have been carried out and for all the cross-sections elemental maps have been created. While it was initially thought that studying the color and pigment composition of his ground layers might shed a light on the city in which the paintings where executed and hence give it a place in the chronology of his oeuvre, the focus has shifted during the research. Next to the study of the ground layers, certain pigments in his paint layers are now studied in more depth. By looking at trace elements in his blue pigments, like smalt and ultramarine, two pigments Steen used a lot, we found some promising results considering the chronology. A rather new tool in the study of paintings to get more information out a large number of data is the use of a statistical database. By doing multivariate analyses on a chosen data set the correlation between variables can be found which without this analyses will be overlooked. For Jan Steen paintings it turned out that by putting the trace elements found in the pigment smalt he has used, but also the smalt used by contemporaries, in a statistical database, clusters of paintings were formed after the multivariate analyses, which could be correlated to the cities where he worked. These results are very promising and give already more insight into the chronology of his work. This research will now be extended with his use of ultramarine.

Speakers
avatar for Sabrina Meloni

Sabrina Meloni

Paintings Conservator, Royal Picture Gallery Mauristhuis
Sabrina is a paintings conservator working in the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis. She has a master’s degree in Art History from Leiden University, where she specialized in Italian Renaissance Art, with a master thesis about the origin of oil painting in 15th-century Florence... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr. Ralph Haswell

Dr. Ralph Haswell

Research Scientist, Shell Global Solutions International B.V.
Ralph Haswell earned his PhD in Physics from the University of Surrey in 1991 and since then he has worked for Shell in Amsterdam on the microstructural characterization of solids. His particular area of expertise is electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Annelies van Loon

Dr. Annelies van Loon

Paintings Research Scientist, Rijksmuseum
Annelies van Loon is a paintings research scientist both at the Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam) and the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis (The Hague). She received a master’s degree in chemistry, a post-doctoral diploma in the conservation of easel paintings from the Limburg Conservation... Read More →
DO

Dr. Onno de Noord

Principle Research Scientist/Consultant for Advanced Data Analyses, Shell Global Solutions
Onno de Noord recently retired as Principal Research Scientist at Shell Global Solutions in Amsterdam, where he spent most of his professional career. He studied Pharmacy at the University of Groningen, where he specialized in Analytical Chemistry and Chemometrics. At his university... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:30pm

(Research and Technical Studies) Differential stability of cadmium yellow paints in Picasso’s ‘Femme’
Pablo Picasso’s ‘Femme’ (c. 1908; Beyeler Foundation, Basel, CH) is an oil study related to ‘Les Demoiselles d’Avignon’. A collaborative, multi-analytical, technical examination of the painting was carried out to answer questions about the artist’s materials and technique during an important, but relatively understudied, period of his career. Of particular technical interest were two yellow passages: a visibly degraded cool lemon yellow and a seemingly intact warm yellow. To understand the nature of the degradation, and to better assess the risk of further alteration, the physical structure of both yellow paints were assessed by visible-light and UV microscopy, and the chemical composition characterized by ESEM-EDS, GC-MS, and μFTIR. Although cadmium sulfide (CdS) and barium sulfate were present in both yellows, the overall elemental composition, size, and distribution of particles suggested two different commercial paint preparations. Visible-light and UV microscopy of prepared cross sections revealed a distinctive boundary between the altered lemon yellow paint towards the surface and an unaltered zone below. Detectably higher concentrations of known CdS alteration products - cadmium carbonate, cadmium sulfate, and cadmium oxalate - were identified by μFTIR in the altered region of the degraded lemon yellow paint. These results suggest the paint underwent photo-oxidative degradation, resulting in both a surface discoloration and the breakdown of the physical structure of the paint film. In contrast, the warm yellow paint samples showed no such evidence of deterioration. In order to map and better characterise the optical emission of the paint and its degradation additional analysis was carried out using in situ fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of the whole painting, and time-resolved photoluminescence microscopy of microsamples. Analysis revealed significant differences in the fluorescence decay, band gap, and trap state luminescence emissions between the intact and degraded cadmium sulfide yellow across the painting. The results enhance our understanding of degradation pathways present in Femme, which is expected to help guide the painting’s future preservation. Moreover, data suggest that fluorescence lifetime imaging may provide a non-invasive mechanism for monitoring the state of preservation of cadmium sulfide painted layers.

Speakers
avatar for Douglas MacLennan

Douglas MacLennan

Research Lab Associate, Getty Conservation Institute
Douglas MacLennan joined the Technical Studies research laboratory at the Getty Conservation Institute in 2016. His work focuses on the technical examination of works of art in collaboration with both conservators and curators. His research interests include the use of XRF and multispectral... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Daniela Comelli

Daniela Comelli

Associate Professor, Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica
Daniela Comelli's research activity is focused on the development of optical spectroscopy for material characterization relevant especially in conservation science. Presently, she is responsible of the Italian Research Units within the 3-years international project LeadART (call JPI-CULTURAL... Read More →
avatar for Markus Gross

Markus Gross

Chief Conservator, Fondation Beyeler
Markus Gross was trained at the Conservation-Restauration BFH (Berner Fachhochschule) in Berne, Switzerland (Diploma FH 1993) as a paintings, objects and wallpainting conservator and worked in several museums in Switzerland and as a free-lance conservator until 2001. During this time... Read More →
avatar for Herant Khanjian

Herant Khanjian

Assistant Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Herant Khanjian received his undergraduate degree in chemistry from California State University, Northridge and has been a member in the Science department of the Getty Conservation Institute since 1988. His research interests involve the detection and identification of organic media... Read More →
avatar for Joy Mazurek

Joy Mazurek

Assistant Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Joy Mazurek specializes in the identification and characterization of natural and synthetic organic materials by a number of analytical techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. She also works on the classification of biomarkers produced by... Read More →
avatar for Austin Nevin

Austin Nevin

Researcher, CNR-IFN
Austin Nevin, chemist and conservator, is a Researcher at CNR-IFN where he has worked since 2011. His research focuses on the analysis of paintings and painting materials, and the study of ancient and modern cultural heritage using optical and spectroscopic techniques. He is a Council... Read More →
avatar for Catherine Schmidt Patterson

Catherine Schmidt Patterson

Associate Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Catherine Schmidt Patterson received her PhD in physical chemistry at Northwestern University. Her primary areas of research are the use of non- or minimally invasive techniques such as Raman microspectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, technical imaging to study works of art... Read More →
avatar for Alan Phenix-[PA]

Alan Phenix-[PA]

Paintings Conservator; Scientist
Alan Phenix is a paintings conservator, conservation educator and conservation scientist. Recently retired, from November 2006 he was employed as ‘Scientist’ at the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI), Los Angeles. In his first years at GCI he worked partly for the Museum Research... Read More →
avatar for Karen Trentelman

Karen Trentelman

Senior Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Karen Trentelman is head of Technical Studies research, which focuses on the scientific study of works of art to further the understanding and preservation of these works in collaboration with conservators and curators. Current areas of interest include: revealing hidden layers in paintings and manuscripts using noninvasive spectro... Read More →
avatar for Gianluca Valentini

Gianluca Valentini

Professor, Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica

Saturday June 2, 2018 3:30pm - 4:00pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston
  • Specialty Tracks Research and Technical Studies
  • Cost Type Included with registration
  • Abstract ID 13791
  • Authors (in order) Douglas MacLennan, Austin Nevin, Alan Phenix, Daniela Comelli, Catherine Schmidt Patterson, Gianluca Valentini, Herant Khanjian, Joy Mazurek, Markus Gross, Laura Rivers, Karen Trentelman

4:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies) Constructivism Strands and Concrete Art in Brazil – the Materiality of Form
The aesthetics of Brazilian Concrete Art is characterized by visual and technical experimentations within the context of the post-2wwar conceptual-artistic relationship and the then contemporary “aura” of modernity, which was itself driven and supported by the industrial development in the country. The present paper presents the results of the research carried on the materials and technology of construction of paradigmatic works of art of the concretism period in Brazil, belonging to the following collections: Pinacoteca of the State of São Paulo; Museum of Modern Art – MAM – Rio de Janeiro; Collection Tuiuiú (onwed by Luis Antonio de Almeida Braga) – Rio de Janeiro; and the Pampulha Art Museum, in Belo Horizonte – Minas Gerais. The objects are studied under a methodological approach based on the principles of Technical Art History, as part of the J. Paul Getty Trust Project Pacific Standard Times – Los Angeles/Latin America – Getty PST LA/LA. The project partners are based in the USA – Getty Conservation Institute; Argentina – Universidad San Martin; Brazil – LACICOR – Conservation Science Laboratory, these last two with research grants kindly supported by the Getty Foundation The Brazilian Project Coordination is headed by the LACICOR – Conservation Science Laboratory team, based at CECOR – Center for Conservation of Cultural Heritage, at the School of Fine Arts of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. At the School of Fine Arts, besides undergraduate courses in Arts, Fashion Design, Multimidia, Dance, and Conservation-Restoration Bachelor’s Degree, we also have a Graduate (Master and Ph.D.) Program on Arts, with a research line in conservation of cultural heritage. The working methodological approach combines knowledge and traditional tools already used in the Art Historical research, with scientific methods of analysis of materials and scientific imaging documentation techniques. The results contribute to a better understanding of the historical, political, social and economic context of the creative period between the years 1950-60’s in Brazil The case studies described represent original knowledge regarding the art production in Brazil at this specific period, 1950’s - 1960, centered in the relations between matter and appearance, as well as involving the permanence in time of the works of art and the search for the most appropriate forms of access, exhibition and conservation-restoration processes. Diverse types of then “modern” binding media have been found by chemical analysis (PY-GC-MS, GC-MS, FTIR), such as nitrocellulose, alkyd, and PVA, as well as oil and oil-resin mixtures—including, in some cases, the use of beeswax as an extra component added to the main oil binding medium. Alkyd paints, for example, have been identified in fourteen out of a total of thirty-one paintings studied from these collections. For this presentation in particular we present the results of our studies on works by the following artists: Lygia Clark, Helio Oiticica, Waldemar Cordeiro, Judith Lauand, Willys de Castro, Hermelindo Fiaminghi, Ivan Serpa, Mauricio Nogueira de Lima, Aluisio Carvao, Milton da Costa.

Speakers
avatar for Luiz A  C Souza

Luiz A C Souza

Associate Professor - Coordinator of LACICOR - Conservation Science Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais
Dr. Luiz Souza holds a M.Sc. in Chemistry, with experimental work developed at the IRPA – Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique (Brussels, Belgium, 1986-87), where his work has focused on stone degradation and conservation techniques. The experimental work for his Ph.D. in Chemistry... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Yacy A. Froner

Yacy A. Froner

Associate Professor, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Yacy-Ara Froner has a BA in history from the Federal University of Ouro Preto in Brazil (1988). She has a MA in Social History from the University of São Paulo (1994). She has a Ph.D. in Economic History with an emphasis in Cultural Heritage from the University of São Paulo (2001... Read More →
avatar for Giulia Giovani

Giulia Giovani

Associate Professor, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Associate professor in the Undergraduate Program of Conservation in School of Fine Arts in Federal University of Minas Gerais.
RL

Rita L Rodrigues

Adjunct Professor, CECOR - Center for Conservation of Cultural Heritage
avatar for Alessra Rosado

Alessra Rosado

Adjunct Professor, UFMG School of Fine Arts
Dr. Alessra Rosado is a professor at the UFMG School of Fine Arts. She has a PhD in Art from the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), a MA in Visual Arts from UFMG (2005), a certificate in the Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Properties (CECOR) from the School of Fine... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston