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6. Specialty Session [clear filter]
Thursday, May 31
 

2:00pm

(Architecture + Archaeological Conservation) Digging Deep: The Importance of Collaborations between Architectural Conservators and Archeologists
Excavating at an archeological site or probing a building can provide opportunities for architectural conservators and archeologists to work together. We do not collaborate as often as we should. This paper examines several projects where either there was collaboration or it was lacking and demonstrates how these two types of conservators examining materials together extracts a better understanding of what has been found. Building archeology is the study of a building. Despite the word archeology, it is not uncommon for Architectural Conservators to forget the archeologist. Removing floorboards for repairs in the Lower East Side Tenement Museum in New York City uncovered layers of objects including buttons, bones and tickets hidden in rats’ nests as well as material that had fallen between the floorboards over the course of a hundred and thirty years. Archeologists were a key part of the team retrieving and documenting this material for interpretation. Another type of project that would benefit from more collaboration is cemetery conservation. Often cemetery conservation is limited to repairing, aligning, and resetting markers, ensuring the cemetery looks tidy. But not all cemeteries had neatly placed gravestones surrounded by careful plantings. African American burials were often marked by grave goods or “offerings” placed upon graves. These items could be pottery and shells, as well as everyday objects such as cups, spoons, dolls heads, and clothing. Sandy Ground, a cemetery on the southern tip of Staten Island, was originally the resting place for an early free African American fishing community. It was vandalized in the 1990s. In an effort to restore the cemetery, it was cleaned up and many grave goods that were thought to be trash were lost. Archeologists can also forget that architectural conservators have extensive knowledge of historic building materials. During work on New York City Hall, a brick foundation was uncovered that was thought to be an early eighteenth century foundation. An examination by the architectural conservators found the walls were constructed of pressed brick and the mortar was natural cement, which dated the foundations well into the nineteenth century. On projects where archeologists and architectural conservators have worked together, a greater understanding of the building or site can emerge. An examination of the foundations of Federal Hall in New York City by a team consisting of an architectural conservator and an archeologist quickly dispelled the notion that the foundations were from a seventeenth century structure. An examination of walls discovered in Battery Park during work on the New York City subway system also benefited from a team of archeologists and architectural conservators working together. The excavated walls could not be saved, but the team was able to thoroughly document the techniques and materials used to construct them.

Speakers
avatar for Mary A. C. Jablonski

Mary A. C. Jablonski

Conservator, Jablonski Building Conservation, Inc.
Mary Jablonski is the president and founder of Jablonski Building Conservation, Inc. She has over 26 years' experience in many aspects of historic conservation. Mary is involved with almost all projects. This helps to insure that a consistent methodology is applied across projects... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Book and Paper) Washi: Understanding Japanese paper as a material of culture and conservation
Washi, or Japanese paper, is both a material of cultural heritage and a material used ubiquitously in conservation. Long before it became an amazing conservation material, washi had specific purposes tied to Japanese culture. Japanese papermaking is a historical craft that has experienced significant changes in the past few decades. Sadly, not all changes are for the better—the number of papermakers is dwindling and certain types of washi have become extinct due to closure of papermaking mills responding to various pressures. The accelerated changes in the world of washi compounded by potential language barriers for conservators who are not fluent in Japanese make it difficult for conservators to be certain of how these changes might be affecting washi used for treatment.  Seminal research has been conducted in the past about Japanese papermaking materials and techniques as well as technical analysis of handmade and machine made washi to determine its most appropriate use in conservation. However, these references may not be current enough for conservators to assess papers made in modern times.
 
By maintaining a current understanding of the history and process of Japanese papers we are respecting washi as both an object of cultural importance and as a conservation material that we use so commonly. This presentation seeks to review the history and technical process of Japanese papermaking. It will look at the methods and techniques of the papermakers represented by Hiromi Paper Inc., as well as some of the toolmakers, and raw materials involved in the papermaking process. Related conservation research published to date will be covered, and methods of extracting information through visual examination of washi for practical applications in conservation will be discussed.

Speakers
avatar for Brook Prestowitz

Brook Prestowitz

Conservator, Williamstown Art Conservation Center
In her role as National Endowment for the Arts Fellow, Brook Prestowitz prepares condition reports, treatment estimates, and proposals, and she carries out conservation treatment for works of art on paper and archival materials.Brook received her BA from the University of Delware... Read More →

Co-Authors
YK

Yuki Katayama

Director, Hiromi Paper Inc.
Yuki works for the California based Hiromi Paper Inc., the primary US importer of fine art Japanese papers for art and conservation. Their papers are used by notable artists, craftsmen, and conservators throughout the US. She helps to supply quality papers and other related materials... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Electronic Media) Rewind, Pause, Playback: Addressing a Media Conservation Backlog at the Denver Art Museum
While the field of electronic media conservation continues to grow in sophistication, museum acquisitions of electronic media artworks have historically outpaced the development of the field and museum professionals’ understanding of the fragility of analog audiovisual materials, software-based artworks, media installation, and other forms of electronic media art. As awareness of electronic media preservation has spread, a need to address the backlog of works already in museum collections has also come into focus. Over the course of the past seven years, the Denver Art Museum (DAM) has worked to establish institutional practice and policy directed at preserving the electronic media in the museum's collection and to deepen institutional knowledge of the complexities associated with this “new” form. However, the DAM began collecting and exhibiting electronic media artwork far before this institutional priority was in place. While developing museum-wide processes for the exhibition and preservation of new acquisitions, the museum has also taken steps to safeguard the electronic media already in the collection. The effort aimed at addressing the backlog of pressing preservation actions necessary to ensure the sustainability of these electronic media works has resulted in two survey-based projects. In 2015, a pilot project, to survey 70 electronic media objects from the AIGA Design Collection of the AD&G Department, resulted in an initial framework for preserving born-digital content. Building on the success of this survey, a broader electronic media conservation project, funded by the IMLS, began in December of 2016, and will continue through September of 2018. The goals of the DAM’s ongoing grant-funded conservation project affect every media artwork in the collection. Any material from the museum’s collection which had previously been stored on videotapes, optical discs, and external hard drives will be migrated to the museum’s digital repository, and cataloged in the museum's collection management system. In the process of performing these tasks, video playback equipment, digital storage, and physical storage needs for the institution have been assessed and improved. Much of electronic media conservation literature emphasizes the significance of a particular work’s history, promoting an approach of compiling “significant properties” through research, in order to determine the work’s “identity” and basing any treatments on this knowledge. This current project addresses the highest risk factors of the DAM’s backlog of materials in an efficient and timely manner. Therefore, the “survey style” of this project does not include complete scrutiny of each object before taking certain actions. This presentation will examine the benefits of the DAM’s approach, while also acknowledging the constraints of this pragmatic methodology.

Speakers
avatar for Eddy Colloton

Eddy Colloton

Conservator, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
Eddy Colloton received his MA degree from the Moving Image Archiving and Preservation program at New York University. Eddy has performed a collection assessment of pioneering video artist Paul Ryan's archive, developed a digital preservation workflow for the conservation department... Read More →
avatar for Kate Moomaw

Kate Moomaw

Conservator, Denver Art Museum
Kate Moomaw trained in objects and modern materials at the Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University, graduating in 2007. She has completed a graduate internship at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and postgraduate fellowships at the Tate in London... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Objects) Manipulating Materials: Preparing and Using Paraloid B-72 Adhesive Mixtures
Recent AIC presentations (2017 Annual Meeting) indicate that there are numerous misunderstandings about the use of solvent adhesives, particularly Paraloid B-72. The increasingly popular use of Paraloid B-72 is based primarily on its notable and favorable conservation attributes. Paraloid B-72 is the most stable, reversible and dependable resin now used in conservation. It was introduced as an adhesive by the author just over 30 years ago and also has very commendable working properties, including excellent adhesion and fast setting time, but these can easily be compromised by improper preparation and improper application. This paper discusses the many ways that Paraloid B-72, or other solvent-based adhesives should be prepared, modified or manipulated to obtain easy and efficient application as well as consistent and excellent results. Preparation is critical to having a dependable solvent-based adhesive. B-72 can be very easily made up with only a few minutes of preparation, and then allowing about 8 hours for the resin to dissolve in solvent. The choice of solvent is very important, and acetone has proven to be the best solvent, on its own, or in some cases with a small amount (5-10%) of ethanol. The ratio or percentage of resin:solvent can be modified to control the application and setting time for different uses. This then allows the conservator to control the application of a thin or thicker adhesive. One additive is recommended in the initial preparation, and that is the addition of a small amount of hydrophobic fumed colloidal silica, which aids in uniform application, stabilization of the mixture, film formation and solvent evaporation. Fumed silica is an inert material, classified as a rheological agent (to control flow characteristics). It is not necessary to evaporate off any solvent after the B-72 resin has dissolved in the acetone, as the initial amount of solvent can easily be calculated for producing an adhesive of specific viscosity (or thickness). For glass, a thinner solution of approximately 60 % weight/volume is recommended because glass is non-porous and non-permeable, while a thicker solution of 72 % works better on more porous substrates, such as low-fired ceramics, porous stone, wood, bone and ivory. For best results, including application and maintaining a consistent fluid mixture, the prepared adhesive should be poured into adhesive tubes, specifically designed for solvent adhesives. This also improves the ease-of-use and accuracy of assembly.

Speakers
avatar for Stephen Koob-[Fellow]

Stephen Koob-[Fellow]

Chief Conservator, Corning Museum of Glass
Stephen Koob is responsible for the care and preservation of all of the Museum’s collections. This includes cleaning the glass and making recommendations for its handling, storage, display, and movement. He also oversees the maintenance and repair of objects in the Museum’s... Read More →



Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Paintings) Surprise Encounters with Mummy Portraits at the Art Institute of Chicago
The Art Institute of Chicago houses two second-century Roman-era Egyptian mummy portraits in its collection. In recent years mummy portraits have been the focus of considerable study, and the Art Institute’s examples have been examined using multiple analytical techniques in an effort to elucidate the methods and materials used in their creation. During the course of these investigations, intriguing differences between the two portraits were noted. With regard to the binding medium, one of the portraits bears the hallmark robust impasto of wax applied using the encaustic technique, and the other displays the flatter, matte appearance accompanied by the striking tratteggio and crosshatching that is often associated with tempera painting. Indeed, prior to technical examination the two paintings were perceived as such. Analysis of the binding medium of the first portrait using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) demonstrated, unsurprisingly, that it is composed of wax, supporting a description of the technique as encaustic. However, analysis of the second portrait unexpectedly also revealed the presence of wax. A limited number of published studies of media analyses of other portraits which yielded the same dichotomous results—assumed to be egg or glue based on visual appearance but found to be wax upon technical investigation—has confirmed the existence of similar objects in other collections. The Chicago painting is, consequently, one of a growing corpus of portraits that thrusts a tint of grey into an art historical construct that has been presented as quite black and white. Additionally, both portraits were examined with a combination of non-invasive in-situ scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and near infrared luminescence imaging (visible induced luminescence spectroscopy, VILS). The presence of cuprorivaite, or ‘Egyptian blue’, was detected on both portraits, but its character and distribution varied startlingly between them. This discovery raises numerous questions as to the artists’ working methods, material choices, and the transmission of techniques between the Fayum region and the wider Graeco-Roman world. The analyses of the Chicago portraits, alongside collaborative work with other institutions housing similar portraits, adds to the body of information that will hopefully, ultimately address such questions. But it also serves as useful reminder that works of art often resist clear categorization since they are, after all, human creations and thus subject to the individualities and idiosyncrasies of their makers.

Speakers
avatar for Rachel C. Sabino-[PA]

Rachel C. Sabino-[PA]

Associate Conservator of Objects, Art Institute of Chicago
RACHEL C. SABINO has been Associate Conservator of Objects at the Art Institute of Chicago since 2011 where, in addition to treatment-related activities, she has been a co-author of the museum's online scholarly catalogue of Roman art. Rachel held previous positions at the National... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Emeline Pouyet

Emeline Pouyet

Post doctoral fellow, Northwestern University/Art Institute of Chicago
Emeline Pouyet is a post-doctoral fellow at the NU-ACCESS center (Chicago, U.S.A). She received her M.S. degree in Archaeometry in 2010 and completed her Ph.D. studies in 2014 at the ID21 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France). Her activities focused... Read More →
avatar for Federica Pozzi

Federica Pozzi

Associate Research Scientist, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Federica Pozzi, Associate Research Scientist at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, leads the Network Initiative for Conservation Science (NICS), a pilot program aiming to support New York–area museums that do not have access to a state-of-the-art scientific research facility. Federica... Read More →
KS

Ken Sutherland

Conservation Scientist, Art Institute of Chicago
Ken Sutherland is a scientist in the Department of Conservation and Science at the Art Institute of Chicago. He held previous positions as scientist in the Conservation Department of the Philadelphia Museum of Art and Research Fellow in the Scientific Research Department of the National... Read More →
avatar for Marc Sebastian Walton

Marc Sebastian Walton

Co-Director, Research Professor, Center for Scientific Studies in the Arts
Marc Walton joined the Northwestern University / Art Institute of Chicago Center for Scientific Studies in the Arts in 2013 as its inaugural Senior Scientist and as a Research Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University. In January of 2018, he was appointed... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Photographic Materials) Comparison of LED, L-37 Filtered Xenon Arc, and Glass-Filtered Cool White Fluorescent Illumination in the Light Fading and Light-Induced Staining of Color Photographs
During the past several years, there has been a large-scale shift from UV-filtered tungsten halogen illumination to high Color Rendering Index (CRI) LED illumination in museums, galleries, archives, and libraries, along with widespread adoption of generally lower CRI lamps in public buildings, commercial establishments, and homes. The majority of light stability information on the indoor fading and staining of analog and digitally-printed color photographs published in the past 30 years has been based on accelerated tests conducted with glass-filtered and UV-filtered Cool White fluorescent illumination. At the present time, for a number of important reasons, Wilhelm Imaging Research, HP, Epson, and Kodak Alaris, among others, continue to conduct accelerated light fading tests using this illumination source.  However, "ISO International Standard 18937:2014, Imaging materials – Photographic reflection prints – Methods for measuring indoor light stability," specifies L-37 filtered xenon arc illumination for “simulated display in indoor indirect daylight through window glass.” JEITA Standard CP3901A also specifies L-37 filtered xenon arc illumination. Work is currently in progress on "ISO 18937-4, Imaging materials – Photographic reflection prints – Methods for measuring indoor light stability – Part 4: LED Illumination." Working together with Shigeo Suga of Suga Test Instruments of Tokyo, Japan, Henry Wilhelm is serving as Co-Project Leader in the development of this new ISO standard. Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc. has designed and constructed new temperature and humidity-controlled accelerated light stability test equipment for LED lamps. This paper will present comparative fading and staining data for a representative group of color photographic print materials, including silver-halide color (chromogenic) prints made with Kodak Alaris Endura Premier Professional Paper and Fujicolor Crystal Archive PDN Professional Paper (also to be discussed is the newly-developed "Improved Light-Stability" Fujicolor Crystal Archive Professional Paper that was publicly announced at the IS&T Digital Printing Technologies Conference in Denver, Colorado on November 8, 2017, and will be commercially introduced in September 2018 at the Photokina trade show in Cologne, Germany); Epson UltraChrome HDR pigment inkjet prints; Epson EcoTank (Epson 664 dye inks) dye inkjet prints; ChromaLuxe dye-sublimation photographs printed on an intermediate transfer paper with Epson UltraChrome DS (dye sublimation) inks and then thermally transferred under high heat at 190–205°C (375–400°F) and pressure (60–80 PSI) for 2–4 minutes onto a rigid, specially coated ChromaLuxe aluminum support; and ChromaLuxe dye-sublimation photographs printed in the same manner with Sawgrass 8-color Sublijet HD Pro Photo XF dye-sublimation inks. The prints have been subjected to accelerated tests using high-intensity 25 klux LED illumination from SORAA Vivid PAR 38 violet (purple) pump emitter LED lamps with a CRI of 95 and CCT of 3000K (1000 lumen output, 60°FL, 18.5-watt SORAA SP38-18-60D-930-03) with glass-filtered, UV-filtered, and non-filtered (bare-bulb) exposure conditions.  For comparison purposes, prints have been exposed to illumination from single-phosphor OSRAM Sylvania High Output (HO) 4200K Cool White (JIS F-6) fluorescent lamps (made in Canada) with glass-filtered, UV-filtered, and non-filtered bare-bulb exposure conditions.  In addition, in ongoing tests, prints have been exposed to xenon arc illumination (equipped with water-cooled Hoya L-37 glass filters and dual IR filters) in a Suga SX75F temperature- and humidity-controlled xenon arc test unit equipped with dual refrigerated chamber air and water-jacketed xenon lamp cooling systems that simulate indoor indirect daylight through window glass, both with and without a UV filter.  Illumination levels, sample surface temperature, test chamber temperature, and relative humidity conditions have been maintained as close as possible to the same aim-points. Identical methods of test target measurement and analysis for reporting fading and staining data are employed. Tungsten-halogen and L-37 filtered xenon illumination, however, present a number of difficult technical issues in terms of maintaining uniform sample surface temperatures, moisture levels, uniform illumination levels, and mitigating other factors that can result in poor inter-laboratory agreement between different testing organizations, and this will be discussed in the presentation.  The spectral power distributions in the UV, Visible, and IR regions for all of the illumination sources will be given, including the spectral properties of LED lamps based on blue pump emitters and LED lamps based on violet (purple) pump emitters.  Related topics that will briefly be discussed include:  Lux (a measure of light intensity as perceived by the human eye – and its generally not straightforward relationship to rates of fading and light-induced staining), Color Rendering Index (CIE CRI), IES TM-30-15, Television Lighting Consistency Index (TLCI), Color Quality Scale (CQS), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) for LED lamps will be described.  Potential differences between blue pump emitter LED illumination and violet (purple) pump emitter LED illumination in terms of their potential impacts on the fading rates of color photographs – and, likely, paintings, watercolors, other works of art, fabrics, books, and historically important documents – will also be discussed.

Speakers
avatar for Henry Wilhelm

Henry Wilhelm

Director of Research, Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc.
Henry Wilhelm is Director of Research at Wilhelm Imaging Research, Inc. in Grinnell, Iowa, USA. Wilhelm has authored or co-authored more than 30 technical papers presented at conferences sponsored by the Society for Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T), the Imaging Society of Japan... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Richard Adams

Richard Adams

Associate Professor, School of Graphic Communications Management, Ryerson University
Richard M. Adams II, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the School of Graphic Communications Management at Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada. He teaches courses in document design, web design, and material science for print. His research interests include color management, electronic... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) Fiber and Yarn Cross-section Sample Preparation Methods for Effective Plant Fiber Material Characterization and Identification
Fiber cross-section observation is often essential when characterizing and identifying plant fiber artifacts. A number of bast fibers and leaf fibers have very similar morphologies in the longitudinal direction but they differ more distinctively from each other in cross-section features. Most of the existing methods of fiber or yarn cross-section sample preparation, for either light or scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations, are not designed for handling fragile archaeological materials. The aim of this research project was to identify and develop effective fiber or yarn cross-section preparation methods which can be used for studying fragile archaeological textile objects. This study compared three fiber or yarn cross-section sample preparation methods for SEM observation including epoxy embedding, modified plastic fiber cross-section plate and free-hand as well as another three methods for light microscopic (LM) observation, including epoxy embedding and ultra-thin cross-sectioning, free-hand sectioning of embedded fiber or yarn sample and Precision Cross-section Microtome. All these methods were applied to the same archaeological textile remains retrieved from an early 16th century shipwreck site. Several known fiber or fiber plant samples were also studied for reference purposes, including hemp, jute, sisal, abaca, stinging nettle and flax. The SEM results showed that the adoption of a plastic cross-section plate designed for LM usage was the most effective fiber or yarn cross-section preparation method. The plate is cheap and easy to use. Either fiber or yarn samples can be placed into the 1-2 mm holes within the plastic plate using a known synthetic fiber as buffer or protection around the archaeological fiber sample. As to the three methods for LM observation, the most efficient method was free-hand sectioning of fiber or yarn embedded in common slide preparation solution. When dealing with very fragile sample, however, the best method was epoxy resin embedding and ultra-thin cross-sectioning (1 micrometer). This method minimizes sample distortion and keeps the sample intact. However, a phase contrast microscope is needed for observing and imaging the obtained ultra-thin cross-section samples. Based on all the cross-section images obtained from both archaeological textile samples and reference fibers or fiber plant samples, we recommend using yarns to prepare cross-section sample for either SEM or LM observation when possible. The cross-section of yarns could provide not only fiber information but also other plant tissue cell characteristics. The later can be critical when identifying a specific fiber plant. When studying very fragile archaeological textile material, we recommend the method of epoxy embedding and ultra-thin sectioning, although this method is most time consuming. The other two methods using plastic fiber cross-section plate for SEM observation and free-hand sectioning of embedded sample for LM observation are quick, easy, effective and applicable to most of textile materials. Finally, the results of this project demonstrated again that fiber cross-section study is essential when identifying and characterizing archaeological plant fiber artifacts.

Speakers
avatar for Runying Chen

Runying Chen

Professor/Educator, East Carolina University
RUNYING CHEN, Associate Professor. Dr. Chen received her Ph.D. in Human Ecology, majoring in textile science with concentration in analytical chemistry, in 1998 from the Ohio State University. She has been teaching at the Department of Interior Design and Merchandising of East Carolina... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Tom Fink

Tom Fink

Biology Department Imaging Laboratory Manager, East Carolina University
Tom Fink received his PhD from Florida State University. He manages Biology Department Imaging Laboratory, conducts and assists research projects using the laboratory facilities. Dr. Fink also teaches biology imaging courses for both undergraduate and graduate students at East Carolina... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Wooden Artifacts) Inside the Frames of Stanford White: A Technical Study
Stanford White (1853-1906) is well-known as an architect at the architectural firm of McKim, Mead & White in New York, where he was a partner from 1879 until his unexpected death in 1906. Although he was best known for his architectural work and interior designs, The Metropolitan Museum of Art holds over a dozen picture frames that were designed by White. A technical study of Stanford White frames in the Metropolitan’s collection was carried out by the author as part of an Annette de la Renta Junior Fellowship in the Department of Paintings Conservation. Seven frames, designed between 1889 and 1900, were examined using various analytical techniques, to complement existing studies which focus mainly on stylistic elements and on White’s professional relationships and collaborations. Just as his interior designs, White’s frame designs can be placed in the context of the late nineteenth-century Aesthetic Movement, which included an array of styles, resulting in highly artistic and aestheticized designs with a great variety of decorative elements. The frames were designed for specific paintings that were painted by White’s contemporaries, many of whom were his personal friends. White held close tabs on his frame designs, whether unique frames matching specific paintings or standard designs. Neither client nor frame maker was allowed to execute his frame or ornament designs without his permission. After his death the standard designs, documented with photographs, molds and samples, continued to be fabricated. Copies of his frames were made as well. His elaborate frame designs with distinctive, often architectural ornaments, are fascinating works of art that had not been extensively studied technically. This paper will present the results of the technical study. It will discuss observations about manufacturing processes, such as the use of joints associated with cabinetry and the use of copper wire in cast ornaments. Moreover, it will address the originality of the surfaces, such as the direct application of gilding on a wooden substrate, without a gesso preparation. The technical results are complemented with findings from archival research at the Avery Architecture and Fine Arts Library (Columbia University), which holds correspondence on numerous of White’s projects. The interdisciplinary approach of technical and archival research is especially valuable whenever material aspects of the original frames are lost, covered or altered. This study has provided valuable insights in American frame making towards the end of the nineteenth century. As an architect and designer in America’s Gilded Age, Stanford White elevated frame making to a form of art. Examining the technical aspects of White’s frame designs also adds to the growing appreciation of frames as art objects in their own right.

Speakers
avatar for Tess Graafland

Tess Graafland

Junior Conservator of Frames and Gilding, Rijksmuseum
Tess Graafland graduated from the University of Amsterdam with a Master degree and Professional Doctorate in Conservation and Restoration of Wood and Furniture in 2014. She took internships at both the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, in furniture... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Collection Care) Stash Flash V – Storage Tips Session
The STASHc (Storage Techniques for Art, Science and History collections) website www.stashc.com, hosted by FAIC is now five years old and continues to expand as a resource for sharing well-designed storage solutions.  To complement AIC’s 46th Annual Meeting conference theme, the 2018 STASH Flash session will focus on the interplay between the material composition of artifacts and the materials chosen for the construction of storage and support solutions. The session will utilize a lightening round or “tips” format and the full presentations will be posted on the STASHc website following the conference.  After the presentations there will be an update on the Collection Care Network’s new Materials Working Group and we will engage participants in discussion about their hopes and needs for an online resource that will aid in making suitable materials choices for storage, exhibit and transport.
 
Download a complete listing of talks with abstracts below.

Moderators
avatar for Rachael Perkins Arenstein-[PA]

Rachael Perkins Arenstein-[PA]

Partner, AM Art Conservation LLC
Rachael Perkins Arenstein is a Professional Associate member of the American Institute for Conservation. She is a principal of A.M. Art Conservation, LLC, the private practice that she co-founded in 2009. She has worked at the Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem, the Smithsonian's National... Read More →
avatar for Lisa Goldberg

Lisa Goldberg

Conservator, Goldberg Preservation Services, LLC
Project leader for STASH, AIC News Editor and conservator in private practice. Lisa Goldberg is a private conservator with a focus on preventive care as well as health and safety issues. She is a member of SPNHC and AAM, and is a Professional Associate of AIC. As long time editor... Read More →

Speakers
avatar for Dorothy Cheng

Dorothy Cheng

Conservator, Cheng Conservation
Dorothy Cheng completed her MA degree in Conservation Studies at West Dean College in England, in September 2015, specializing in metalwork. As an Edward James Foundation Anniversary scholar, she investigated the impact of a siloxane anti-graffiti coating on Corten® A weathering... Read More →
avatar for Isaac Facio

Isaac Facio

Assistant Conservator, Preparation and Mounting, Textiles, Art Institute of Chicago
avatar for Alison Reppert Gerber

Alison Reppert Gerber

Preservation Coordinator, Smithsonian Institution Archives
Alison is the Preservation Coordinator for the Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) in Washington, DC. At SIA, she oversees all preservation-related activities, which include collection need and risk assessment, preventive conservation tasks, budgeting and procurement, and long-term... Read More →
avatar for Sarah Gordon

Sarah Gordon

Conservation Technician, Textiles, Art Institute of Chicago
Sarah Gordon is the Conservation Technician in the textile conservation lab at the Art Institute of Chicago. In charge of preparation and collections care, she holds a strong interest in preventive conservation, particularly in integrated pest management. She graduated with a Bachelor... Read More →
avatar for Marieka Kaye-[PA]

Marieka Kaye-[PA]

Head, Conservation & Book Repair, University of Michigan Library
Marieka currently holds the position of Harry A. and Margaret D. Towsley Foundation Head, Conservation & Book Repair at the University of Michigan Library. She has worked at U-M since 2013, after serving as a book and paper conservator for 8 years at the Huntington Library in San... Read More →
avatar for Morgan Nau

Morgan Nau

Associate Conservator, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
Morgan Nau is the Associate Conservator at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University. She most recently held the position of Associate Conservator of Objects at the Indianapolis Museum of Art. Before that, she spent time at The Field Museum where she prepared... Read More →
avatar for James S. Thurn

James S. Thurn

Preservation Specialist, Library of Congress
Jim Thurn is a book and paper conservator by profession. He attended the University of Texas at Austin, at the former Kilgarlin Center for Preservation of the Cultural Record, where I earned a Master of Science in Information Studies with a Certificate of Advanced Study in Conservation... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 2:00pm - 3:30pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Architecture + Archaeological Conservation) Loves Me like a Rock: Care and Preservation of Ancient Graffiti in a Rock-Cut Kushite Temple
This talk describes the preservation of ancient graffiti in a rock-cut temple at the site of El Kurru in Sudan. El Kurru is the location of a royal burial ground of ancient Kush (a region located in modern-day northern Sudan), and the site encompasses multiple pyramid burials as well as two rock-cut funerary temples. The sandstone temple that is the focus of this project was built during the late Napatan period (ca. 350 BC), and its walls and columns are heavily inscribed with devotional graffiti from the Meroitic period (ca. 100 BC – AD 100). It is an impressive and unique structure, a source of pride for local residents, and an interesting and accessible feature for visitors. The ancient graffiti it contains provide a unique glimpse into the lives of individuals in antiquity, providing information about their thoughts, values, and daily lives. El Kurru’s sandstone monuments suffer from granular disintegration and other serious condition problems. Although the conservation of archaeological heritage is often complicated, it is especially challenging in Sudan due to a fragile national economy and comprehensive intertnational sanctions against the country (except - these were just lifted in October 2017! - so it might get better!). For these reasons, a holistic approach has been used to preserve the graffiti. Work began with a criterion-anchored rating (CAR) condition survey designed to identify, prioritize, and monitor condition issues. Chemical analysis of the stone was conducted, and treatment options including alkoxysilane consolidation and grout injection were explored. Preventive conservation strategies for the temple, including a protective shelter and increased community education, have also been developed. Finally, reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) was used to document the graffiti’s condition and create a virtual, visual catalog. This talk emphasizes key principles for guiding conservation at archaeological sites: practicality, flexibility, sustainability, and placing a high value on the contributions and wishes of stakeholders.

Speakers
avatar for Suzanne Davis

Suzanne Davis

Conservator, Kelsey Museum of Archaeology
Suzanne Davis is an associate curator and the head of conservation at the University of Michigan’s Kelsey Museum of Archaeology. Prior to joining the Museum in 2001, she was a conservator for the Underwater Archaeology Branch of the Naval Historical Center in Washington, D.C. She... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Janelle Batkin-Hall

Janelle Batkin-Hall

Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Objects Conservation, National Museum of African Art
Janelle Batkin-Hall is a Mellon Fellow in objects conservation at the National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution. She holds an M.A. and Certificate of Advanced Study in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College. Janelle earned undergraduate degrees in photography and... Read More →
avatar for Carrie Roberts-[PA]

Carrie Roberts-[PA]

Conservator, Kelsey Museum of Archaeology
Caroline Roberts is a conservator at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan. She is a graduate of the Winterthur / University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation, and is a professional associate of the AIC. Her interests include the conservation and preservation... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Book and Paper) Optical Clearing of Repair Tissues for the Treatment of Translucent Papers
There are many types of translucent papers, each with its own set of conservation issues stemming from various manufacturing processes. The characteristic that makes them stand apart from other papers—transparency—can itself be at risk when there is a need for applying mending or lining tissues. This project explores the physical aspects of paper transparency, and investigates the concept of optical clearing (transparentizing) of repair tissues, with the goal of achieving appropriate repairs on translucent papers without dramatically increasing the opacity of treated areas. The term “optical clearing” is borrowed from the fields of biology and medical research; it refers to the process of rendering biological tissues transparent through the application of clearing agents, which minimize the scattering of light and allow greater visibility for microscopy and imaging. This is similar to some historical processes of transparentizing paper, in which oils, waxes and rosins were added to fill light-scattering interstices, allowing more light to travel unimpeded through the paper web. This concept is applied to conservation repair tissues, with the goal of determining a coating to serve dual functions: optical clearing agent and reactivatable adhesive.

A wide range of adhesives and coatings familiar to paper conservation was tested for their transparentizing effects on a variety of repair tissues, including more traditional Japanese papers and the recently developed nanocellulose papers. Opacity measurements were taken using a spectrophotometer and the contrast-ratio method. Acrylic polymer dispersions proved to be the most consistently successful clearing agents. The most substantial transparentizing effects occurred in gampi-fiber Japanese tissues, with some cleared by over 90% of their original opacity. This can be attributed to the superior film-formation qualities of the acrylic dispersions and their amorphous polymeric structure. The heat-reactivation capability of acrylic adhesives also proves advantageous for the treatment of translucent tissues, which tend to react dramatically to moisture.

A range of repair methods was applied to modern translucent tissue samples. These were measured for opacity before and after treatment to compare to repairs made with cleared tissues. SEM cross-sectional imaging was used to visualize adhesive penetration. Attempts at removing each repair were also made to characterize ease-of-reversibility. The long-term stability of optically cleared repair tissues is considered alongside an aging test that measures the yellowing and turbidity of acrylic transparentizing coatings under different light exposures.

The application of the optically cleared tissues is discussed via the treatment of two large objects possessing damaged transparent overlays: Atlas Photographique de la Lune (Observatoire de Paris, 1896–1910) and Frank Lloyd Wright’s “Wasmuth Portfolio” (1910). The suitability of different clearing agents in varying contexts is also considered, such as in the treatment of coated transparent papers.

Speakers
avatar for Roger S. Williams

Roger S. Williams

Conservation Fellow, Northwestern University Library
Roger Williams is the current conservation fellow at Northwestern University Libraries. He earned his MA in Conservation Studies (Books & Library Materials) from West Dean College and the University of Sussex in 2015. He worked previously at the Rare Book School at the University... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Electronic Media) Archiving Computer-based Artworks
Art museums throughout the world have been acquiring computer-based artworks with increasing confidence. As artist-created hardware and software enters museum collections, it presents unique challenges for long-term preservation. Conservation staff at these institutions face urgent questions about appropriate materials to collect related to these works and how to define their technical, functional, and conceptual constituents.

The Guggenheim acquired its first computer-based artwork in 1989, Jenny Holzer’s Untitled, a colossal LED sign installed in the museum’s rotunda. Since that time, the collection has expanded to include examples of artist-created websites, custom-made microcontroller units, artist-modified computers, and installations involving video games. As a part of the museum’s initiative to “Conserve Computer-based Art” (CCBA) in its collection, this paper takes a critical look at the physical and digital elements that museums retain or generate in order to archive and preserve their computer-based artworks.

Drawing from the Guggenheim’s own CCBA collection survey and back-up project, which encompasses artworks from a range of ages and employing a variety of technologies, the paper provides an overview of collected digital assets and documentation, investigates crucial archival elements that are missing in hindsight, and proposes elements that museums should consider obtaining or creating now in order to sustain the collection life of their software- and computer-based artworks.

The paper will devote particular attention to: disk imaging of artist-provided computers, web servers, and removable media (such as floppy disks and CDs); measures that can be taken to enable future access to these disk images; capturing metadata about the hardware and software that an artwork depends upon to function; exploring instances where obtaining source code alone proves insufficient to sustain the life of an artwork; and the importance of technical and descriptive metadata for future migration or emulation of a work. Where relevant, the research draws from the knowledge and experience of the allied fields of computer science, library science, archival studies, and digital preservation. The paper highlights how understanding the practices of these fields as well as engaging in interdisciplinary collaboration becomes essential for conservators to fulfill their mandate as stewards of computer-based art.

Speakers
avatar for Jonathan Farbowitz

Jonathan Farbowitz

Fellow in the Conservation of Computer-based Art, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
Jonathan Farbowitz, Fellow in the Conservation of Computer-based Art, assists the Guggenheim’s Conservation department in addressing the preservation needs of computer-based works in the Guggenheim’s collection. He also supports the development of best practices for collecting... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Objects) Visible effects of adhesive and pressure on color in kingfisher feathers
Structurally colored feathers render color through physical scattering of light rather than pigments. There is an expected, but heretofore unexplored, effect of adhesive choice and pressure on the color of these materials. Further, such feathers are generally considered to be more light-stable than pigmented examples. In the current study, structurally colored blue kingfisher feathers are used to examine these effects in order to guide conservation treatments and preventive care.

The Chinese tradition of tian-tsui, literally 'dotting with kingfishers', describes a technique of cloisonné style jewelry that utilizes blue, blue-green, and purple feathers instead of fused glass powder. The feathers are adhered to a backing, usually metallic, though occasionally composed of thick layers of paper. This technique appears in Chinese culture from as early as the first century BCE, though surviving examples date most prevalently to the Qing dynasty (19th century) (Chambers et al. 1981, 32). The early featherwork items were not restricted to jewelry, but also appeared in the form of feather mosaics on clothing, bed coverings, and palanquins (Chambers et al. 1981, 32; Garrett 1994, 86). Such items are now ubiquitous in museum collections. Through a technical study of kingfisher feather jewelry from the Ruth Chandler Williamson Gallery at Scripps College in Claremont California, as well as accelerated light aging studies and pressure tests completed on mocked up samples of recently plucked kingfisher feathers at both the UCLA/Getty and the Getty Conservation Institute labs, I evaluate the effects of original and conservation/restoration adhesives and coatings, and effects of mechanical interactions, on the structural colors of the feathers.

For the experimental part of the study, feather specimens from skins of Halcyon smyrnensis, the White-breasted Kingfisher, donated by the United States Fish and Wildlife Department, were plucked, trimmed, and adhered onto inert quartz glass plates and subjected to three methods of light aging, with color measurements occurring after aging with an integrating sphere. The accelerated light aging methods included museum conditions (free of ultraviolet radiation), window conditions (ultraviolet radiation present), and high intensity UVA conditions, with an additional control group kept in the dark. Adhesive systems tested were those documented as having been used originally or in the conservation of kingfisher featherwork, including: protein glues (gelatin and isinglass), funori, methylcellulose, and Paraloid B-72. Characterizing the adhesives used on the Scripps collection items provided supporting technical evidence.

Taken together, the results of this study provide insights into kingfisher feather tian-tsui technology, and the effect of adhesive systems and mechanical actions on the preservation of color within these structurally colored feathers. Findings will be presented about the color stability, both separately and upon interaction with different adhesives, leading to recommendations for adhesive choices for the conservation of such featherwork. Further, results of mechanical disruption of kingfisher feather coloration will be illustrated. Experimental work and technical analysis provide an enhanced understanding of a complex material, effectively aiding its conservation and preservation.

Speakers
avatar for Ellen Pearlstein

Ellen Pearlstein

Conservator, UCLA/Getty Master’s Program in the Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials
Ellen Pearlstein is a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles in both Information Studies, and is a founding faculty member in the UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation. Her research interests include American Indian tribal museums and how... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Paintings) A Convenient Method: Canvas Painting in 16th Century Florence
In 16th century Italy, the use of canvas as a support for paintings was more closely associated with Venice than with Florence, yet Florentine painters utilized canvas for certain projects. It has been noted that this usually indicates that these paintings were created for specific purposes such as banners. However, these functions are not always so obvious, and this major clue to the origin of a work can go ignored. This study explores the reasons for using canvas by looking at the works themselves as well as contemporary writings including Vasari on Technique. Vasari, proudly grounded in the Tuscan tradition of panel painting, had a definite respect for the utility of canvas; he writes that it is a “convenient” support, a word which for him had ethical as well as practical connotations. Such research can help re-contextualize works especially those that were not originally conceived as independent paintings. By looking at materials and techniques, as well as evidence of damage and alteration, a painting has recently been identified as part of a temporary decoration (apparato) created for the Medici wedding of 1565; that case study is the core of this paper. At the time, such decorations were extremely important, created by the leading artists of the day, including Pontormo, Bronzino and Alessandro Allori. Designed as ephemera, few have survived, and they are almost forgotten as an art form. Canvas was “convenient” for these decorations not only because – as is often mentioned – it was cheaper, lighter and could be made quite large – but also because it could easily and thriftily be made to an exact, predetermined size so as to fit in an architectural framework that was itself the ancestor of the modern theater set. Using very simple examination techniques - measuring canvas widths, looking at seaming and scalloping as well as ground types and thicknesses and the range of pigments used – a great deal can be understood about this early modern installation art as well as other uses of canvas by artists for whom it was a specific choice. The advantages they found would then inform the more common use of canvas in later centuries.

Speakers
avatar for Jean Dommermuth-[Fellow]

Jean Dommermuth-[Fellow]

Senior Conservator, ArtCare Conservation, A Rustin Levenson Company
BA in Art History and MBA, University of Illinois; MA in Art History and Diploma in Art Conservation, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. After earning her graduate degree in conservation, Jean completed a two year internship focusing on the treatment of old master paintings... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Photographic Materials) Evaluation of Hydrolytic Accelerated Aging Protocols on Cellulose Acetate
A collaborative research project between the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) and the Walt Disney Animation Research Library (ARL) is investigating the effects of storage environment on stability of animation cels. One aspect includes an evaluation of accelerated aging methods to create aged mockups in parallel condition to naturally-aged cels. For cellulose diacetate (CDA) animation cels created between 1940s-1980s, the support material is particularly prone to degradation by hydrolysis and chain scission, while reviewing archival records reveal a variety of storage environments prior to 1996. To date there has yet to be a comprehensive study of CDA reaction kinetics and mechanism of degradation of the problematic art material, nor are there established projections of risk based on specific storage conditions and containment. As part of the evaluation, cellulose triacetate (CTA) and CDA from the Disney ARL collection were compared to thermally-aged set of prepared mock-ups without plasticizers, in order to calculate the rate constant through Arrhenius methods. In some cases CA materials were pre-incubated to ascertain the physical effects of the reaction from within a cel before aging in the CTA industry standard of aluminum/polypropylene (Al/PP) and vapor barrier polyvinyl-fluoride (PVF) heat-sealed bags. This was compared with other cases where CA degradation reaction may be promoted by an environment, by aging within Teflon crimp-lid glass vials with the reactant of water or the catalyst of acid, which is the byproduct of hydrolysis reaction. The depth of penetration of degradation in CA will be assessed by utilizing the rate constant in conjunction with depth-profiling FTIR. Initial results after one month of accelerated aging revealed the Al/PP packaging method resulted in the highest degradation, followed by the glass vials, with the smallest effects seen in the PVF bags. The changes were confirmed by several analytical methods of detecting % acetyl content, including ion chromatography and FTIR. Other key findings of this research indicated plasticizers enhanced the degradation rates in the cels. Moreover, incubation pre-aging enhanced hydrolysis of all these CA plastic films from worst to least: one Molar acetic acid environment, ~85 %RH, and ~55 %RH across all samples analyzed. Initial observations show liquid is trapped between cels when stacked together and aged, but further research will be required to determine the influence of separating each cel in storage. Disney CTA and CDA, and CDA mock-ups aged alongside interleaving, buffered, and box materials aid in assessing the impact of storage materials on CA stability used in the Disney ARL collection. Long term impact of this research is contributing to the understanding of degradation kinetics to assist in predicting CA longevity, as well as providing guidelines for storage conditions and packaging containers.

Speakers
avatar for Carolyn Carta

Carolyn Carta

Research Lab Assistant, Getty Conservation Institute
Carolyn Carta joined the GCI in 2016 as a research lab assistant to lead scientific studies as part of the GCI's collaborative research project with the Disney Animation Research Library. She graduated in 2011 with a BA in art history, studio art, and chemistry from Trinity College... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Katharina Hoeyng

Katharina Hoeyng

Katharina Höyng
Katharina Hoeyng recently moved to Amsterdam where she works as a freelance conservator. Prior to that Kathariana joined the Getty Conservation Institute from 2015-2018. As part of the Preservation of Plastics project, she researches and evaluates treatment methods for reattaching... Read More →
avatar for Herant Khanjian

Herant Khanjian

Assistant Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Herant Khanjian received his undergraduate degree in chemistry from California State University, Northridge and has been a member in the Science department of the Getty Conservation Institute since 1988. His research interests involve the detection and identification of organic media... Read More →
avatar for Joy Mazurek

Joy Mazurek

Assistant Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Joy Mazurek specializes in the identification and characterization of natural and synthetic organic materials by a number of analytical techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ion chromatography. She also works on the classification of biomarkers produced by... Read More →
avatar for Kristen McCormick

Kristen McCormick

Art Exhibitions and Conservation Manager, Walt Disney Animation Research Library
Kristen McCormick has been at the Walt Disney Company for over a decade and a half where she has been responsible for the safe keeping, care and transport of a broad range of artworks from African Art to Animation. In her current role she oversees the conservation care of the Walt... Read More →
avatar for Michael R. Schilling

Michael R. Schilling

Senior Scientist, Yale Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage
Michael Schilling is head of Materials Characterization research at the Getty Conservation Institute, which focuses on development of analytical methods for studying classes of materials used by artists and conservators. He specializes in gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) Untangling Indian Hemp: Understanding and Identifying Common Plant Fibers Used by Native Americans in the Woodlands Region
Bast fibers from North American plant species make up a significant portion of textiles produced by Woodlands cultures. These fibers, which are derived from the inner stems of certain plant species, are a traditional and important to many nations in the Northeast and Great Lakes region, yet have received little attention from Western-focused academia. Much of the literature and fiber identification is unclear, incorrect, or based on a Western perspective. Fibers are frequently referred to as “Indian Hemp,” which aside from being an inherently problematic term, has several meanings. This research aims to collaborate with Indigenous community members to identify traditional fiber producing plants and how they utilized to produce textiles. Three Native American experts in fiber preparation were invited to the National Museum of the American Indian Cultural Resource Center to share and discuss harvesting, processing and weaving, as well as the cultural and material significance of these fibers. As an outcome, a handling collection of physical samples as well as polarized light and scanning electron micrographs will be created to aid in understanding of both the macro and micro properties of these materials. The reference collections and appropriate associated cultural information are available to conservators, curators, and Native and non-Native researchers to improve accuracy of fiber identification, enhance material understanding, and reinforce cultural knowledge. Images will also be made available on online for wider access. By understanding both the physical and cultural context of materials, conservators can make more appropriate decisions about the care of our collections. Allowing indigenous voices to be the authority on their own cultural heritage not only begins the decolonization process of museums, but enriches the institution as well.

Speakers
avatar for Nora Frankel

Nora Frankel

Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Nora Frankel is an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian. Past work includes positions at the Rijksmuseum, Burrell Collection, Death Valley National Park, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, and... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Susan Heald

Susan Heald

Textile Conservator, National Museum of the American Indian
Susan Heald has been the National Museum of the American Indian’s textile conservator since 1994, where she has supervised many pre-program interns and post-graduate fellows. Prior to NMAI, she served as the Minnesota Historical Society’s textile conservator, and was a Smithsonian... Read More →
avatar for Thomas Lam

Thomas Lam

conservation scientist, Smithsonian Conservation Institute
Thomas Lam has a Ph.D. in Ceramics from Alfred University. After his PhD, Thomas completed a postdoc at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Thomas is a Physical Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute (MCI), where he applies his knowledge... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Wooden Artifacts) A case study of the examination and conservation treatment of a mid-18th c. American made chair, and the processes of recreating missing carved elements using traditional methods.
In 1857, Thomas U. Walter designed the chairs and desks that would furnish the Hall of Representatives for the Thirty-fifth United States Congress. Designs for the chair were completed in the spring of 1857, and an order of 262 chairs was split between two separate manufactures. The deadline for the chairs was for December 1st 1857. The MFA, Boston acquired 1 of the 262 chairs in 1980. The armchair’s structure was stable, but the surface was in very poor condition and there was extensive loss of the decorative carved wood molding. The chair was missing molding on both front leg corners, and the entire length of molding under the proper left seat rail. The molding had a beveled edge design with a carved heart and dart pattern on the top surface. Due to the large quantity of the missing moldings, it was decided that fills would be carved from oak to match the surviving molding. In order to draft and carve the fills, an examination was carried out to understand the original methods used to make the chair. This included identifying which parts were machine-made verses handmade. During a visual examination, it became apparent that the chair’s frame was machine cut, and the decorative elements were hand carved. X-ray analysis confirmed that majority of the hand carved molding was simply glued to the main frame. This evidence supported the idea that the chair was part of an assembly line production system. Several attempts of the fills were made using different degrees of machine and hand tooling. Creating the fills using traditional methods proved to be very successful. It also revealed the skills and shortcuts of the original manufacturer. There was very little historical documentation about the chair in the museum records. However, it did state that the attributed maker was Bembé and Kimbel, a New York City based company. During the mid-18th c., the Bembé and Kimbel company was well establish and greatly acclaimed for their high quality of handmade furniture. Based on the evidence found during the chair’s initial examination, suspicion arose over the attributed maker of the chair. Further investigation lead to the second manufacturer that helped complete the large order of chairs. The Desk Manufacturing Company of Philadelphia was contracted to help fulfill half of the order. The company was commissioned because they advertised their fast, large scale machine manufacturing techniques. The evidence of the chair’s construction, as well as additional historical documentation, helped confirm that the MFA’s chair was made by The Desk Manufacturing Company of Philadelphia. This investigation of the materials helped reveal the methods and techniques of the original makers, and helped provide evidence towards the correct authentication. It also helped with the process of using traditional methods to create large fills. A full case study of the conservation treatment will be presented to discuss this investigation and the results of using traditional materials as part of the treatment.

Speakers
avatar for Christine Storti

Christine Storti

Conservator, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Christine Schaette received her bachelor’s degree in furniture conservation from the University of Applied Sciences, Cologne, Germany, in 2006. During this time she interned at the Sherman Fairchild Center for Objects Conservation at the Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York. In... Read More →

Co-Authors
GH

Gordon Hanlon

Head of Furniture and Frame Conservation, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Gordon Hanlon joined the MFA as Head of Furniture and Frame Conservation in January 2000 after 12 years at the J.Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles. After receiving his BA in Biology from the University of York he studied first furniture making at the London College of Furniture followed... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Architecture + Archaeological Conservation) A Collaborative Model for Rock Art Conservation in the Algerian Desert
Algeria, the biggest country in North Africa with an area over 2 million square kilometers, has seven stunning UNESCO World Heritage sites. Among them are the earliest prehistorical sites in North Africa: the Oldwayen site of Ain el-Hanech, 1.8 million years BC. The area is enormous and it is difficult to administer effective long-term site management, preservation, and preventative measures. Not only are these cultural heritage sites threatened by extreme weather and climate, but human intervention, looting, vandalism, and terrorism. In order to protect these vast heritage sites, in the mid 2000s the Algerian authorities created the “Algerian Cultural Parks Projects” in partnership with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and executed by the Algerian Ministry of Culture. This launched a preventative conservation project applying a new model of local partnerships with Tuoareg and other tribal elders and stakeholders. 
Contained in this centralized Cultural Parks System are five major sites. Park of l’Ahaggar – over 633,000 km2; Tassili N’Ajjer Park – over 138,000 km2; Tindouf – over 168,000 km2; Atlas Saharian Park – over 63,000 km2; and Touat Gourarar Tidikelt Park – over 38,000 km2. The most important cultural heritage in this desert designation is the rock art. There are literally thousands of paintings and engravings out in the open, as well as sheltered in caves. They include masterpieces from the earliest period of art in the Sahara, the Large Wild Fauna Period. These life-size engravings of elephant, rhino, hippo, giraffe, and buffalo show a time when the Sahara was green and fertile. 
Conservation management in the Park of Ahaggar focused on the sites closest to roads and human communities, and then radiated out to the remote regions, often several days’ camel or jeep ride away. Preservation work commenced with detailed inventories including images, GPS, and narrative descriptions. For all the conservation surveys and routine checks, the Park recruited guides among the local population, namely the Touaregs. This detailed inventory work in remote regions was only possible with the collaboration and expertise of these partners, who are very familiar with the sites, locations, and routes. Most importantly, the communities and nomadic groups trust the guides; they often speak the same dialects, thereby facilitating a level of trust, access, and reliable information. The exchange of knowledge was two-way; the local Tuoareg elders and guides’ knowledge of the terrain, history, and symbolism of the sites was a rich resource that was documented as well. As archeological conservators, we were able to provide monitoring guidelines, compile massive data inventories, prioritize conservation site needs, and introduce an acceptable level of outside management to these sites. The relationships continue, as the guides serve on the “frontline” identifying areas of need and alerting archeological managers. This partnership has allowed for a much higher success in the protection of remote sites and movable cultural heritage, by developing a model based on trust, which has enabled government and university experts to work closely with local stewards. 

Speakers
avatar for Hakim Bouakkache

Hakim Bouakkache

Assistant Professor, University of Constantine, Algeria
Hakim Bouakkache is an assistant professor at the University of Constantine, in the department of archaeology and conservation, who helped design and build the collaborative conservation model for desert heritage sites. He worked at the National Museum Bardo in Algiers, and studied... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Julia M Brennan-[PA]

Julia M Brennan-[PA]

Owner, Textile Conservation Services / Caring For Textiles
Julia M. Brennan is a textile conservator based in Washington, DC. She has a passion for textiles, Asia, preserving heritage for our children and great greats, and teaching people how to care for their own cultural heritage.

Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Book and Paper) Cocktails and mixers: Ethanol-modified treatments for iron-gall ink.
Cocktails and mixers: Ethanol-modified treatments for iron-gall ink.
The admixture of ethanol to aqueous treatment solutions is commonly used by conservators to mitigate the solubility of water-sensitive media. Prior research and direct observations by Library of Congress conservators have likewise indicated promising applications for the addition of ethanol to treat manuscripts with water-sensitive iron-gall ink. Building on the pioneering research initiated by the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, which demonstrated the efficacy of calcium phytate and calcium bicarbonate to significantly slow the deteriorative mechanisms of iron-gall ink, a team of conservators and scientists at the Library of Congress sought the identify effective "cocktails", or ratios of ethanol and other components in the preparation of phytate and bicarbonate solutions.
This talk will present the results of a multi-year study comparing treatments on artificially-aged iron-gall ink, including washing in ethanol-water mixtures; varying proportions of ethanol in phytate and bicarbonate solutions; comparing ethanol-modified magnesium phytate with ethanol-modified calcium phytate; and ethanol-modified magnesium phytate at different pH values and solution concentrations. The presentation will also discuss the impact of the research on future treatment choices and procedures for iron-gall ink on paper.
Authors in Publication Order: Julie Biggs, Lynn Brostoff, Andrew Davis, Claire Dekle, Cyntia Karnes, Yasmeen Khan, Susan Peckham, and Cindy Connelly Ryan

Speakers
avatar for Julie Biggs

Julie Biggs

Conservator, Library of Congress
Julie Biggs is a Senior Paper Conservator at the Library of Congress, where she has focused on treatment of manuscripts and works on paper, led iron-gall ink treatment research, and managed large-scale collection stabilization and re-housing projects. She previously worked as a senior... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Lynn Brostoff

Lynn Brostoff

Research Chemist, Library of Congress
Lynn B. Brostoff holds a Masters Degree in Polymer Materials Science and a Ph.D. in Chemistry. In addition, Lynn holds a Masters Degree in Art History and a Certificate of Conservation with emphasis in Paper Conservation. For the last 25 years, Lynn has worked as a conservation scientist... Read More →
avatar for Andrew Davis

Andrew Davis

Chemist, Library of Congress
Dr. Andrew Davis is a chemist and polymer scientist in Library of Congress’s Preservation Research and Testing Division. He is currently focused on collections preservation by studying the fundamental degradation science of polymer-based materials, including paper, film, and modern... Read More →
avatar for Claire Dekle

Claire Dekle

Senior Book Conservator, Library of Congress
Claire Dekle is a Senior Book Conservator at the Library of Congress. Her experience as a conservation liaison to the Manuscript Division of the Library, as well as her treatment responsibilities, rekindled an early interest in the conservation of iron-gall ink. She was a member of... Read More →
avatar for Cyntia Karnes-[PA]

Cyntia Karnes-[PA]

Paper Conservator, Art Gallery of Ontario
Cyntia Karnes is a Paper Conservator at the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto, Canada, where she also has a private conservation practice. Previously she was a Senior Paper Conservator at the Library of Congress, following positions at the National Gallery of Art in D.C., and the... Read More →
avatar for Yasmeen Khan

Yasmeen Khan

Head of Paper Conservation, Library of Congress
Yasmeen Khan is Head of Paper Conservation at the Library of Congress. She has a BA in Middle Eastern Studies from Barnard College, and an MLIS from the University of Texas with an Advanced Certificate in Conservation. In 1996 she began working for the Library of Congress, initially... Read More →
avatar for Susan Peckham-[PA]

Susan Peckham-[PA]

Senior Paper Conservator, Library of Congress
Susan Peckham is a Senior Paper Conservator at the Library of Congress where she has worked for twelve years and enjoys acting as conservation liaison to the Prints and Photographs and Music Divisions. Previously, she worked for the National Archives and Records Administration, Smithsonian... Read More →
avatar for Cindy Connelly Ryan

Cindy Connelly Ryan

Preservation Science Specialist, Library of Congress
Cindy Connelly Ryan is a conservation scientist and specialist in art technology source research at the Library of Congress Preservation Research and Testing Division in Washington, DC. Her research areas at LC have included accelerated aging methods, iron gall ink stabilization... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston
  • Specialty Tracks Book and Paper
  • Cost Type Included with registration
  • Abstract ID 13678
  • Authors (in order) Julie Biggs, Lynn Brostroff, Cindy Connelly Ryan, Claire Dekle, Cyntia Karnes, Yasmeen Khan, Susan Peckham, Andrew Davis

3:00pm

(Electronic Media) Conservation Surveys for Time-based Media Art Collections
Collection surveys provide data to enable conservators to mitigate risks to art collections and to set priorities for item-level conservation going forward. Collection surveys are an essential tool to identify works with urgent needs, but assessing an entire collection of time-based media artworks can be daunting. These collections can exhibit great variations: obsolescent analog and digital videos; a multiplicity of film types, file-based works on optical media or hard drives; multi-channel projections/installations; software-based works; and works relying upon networks or databases, to name a few. Collection surveys typically focus primarily on environmental factors and item condition. However, with time-based media an depth-in examination of each individual artwork may not be feasible within the parameters of a survey. Common risks to time-based media art are material characteristics (such as inherent tape deterioration or the fragility of emulsion or substrates), and internal/external dependencies (such as obsolescence of critical equipment, software or communication protocols). While works in a collection may seem very disparate, a majority of works will fall into general categories that share at least some of the same risks. For example, multi-channel video works of a certain era likely use the same synchronizing devices. This session will propose categories that support the identification of works with shared risks and needs, drawing on an understanding of material characteristics, processes within a work, and artists’ working methods. Also, another historical emphasis of surveys – on environmental conditions and traditional storage practices – is not sufficient to identify risks. Time-based media artworks are increasingly created digitally, and digital holdings grow as older analog media are migrated to files for preservation. These artworks have not meshed easily with collection management and art handling practices, and in many cases are not given the same care as other art objects. New and reshaped museum systems are needed, and an examination of existing systems can be equally as important as the examination of the artworks themselves. Thus a survey should include information-gathering in areas such as descriptive systems and metadata management, the management of hardware and software, and the adequacy of digital storage systems. Taken together, the individual and systemic risks can then be weighed to develop a plan of action for the collection as a whole.

Speakers
avatar for Mona Jimenez

Mona Jimenez

Conservator, Materia Media
Mona Jimenez is the principal at Materia Media She previously was a co-Associate Director and Associate Arts Professor at NYU's Moving Image Archiving and Preservation program (MIAP), serving as an expert on the preservation of video, digital media and multimedia. She has worked extensively... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Objects) Manganese Stain Reduction on an Ancient Greek Terracotta Vase
A 5th century BCE Greek red-figure terracotta pelike (jar) at the Harvard Art Museums exhibited areas of black manganese dioxide staining from burial. In addition to ceramics, these black stains are found on bone, glass and stone. They are not considered harmful to the object and are often left as part of its archaeological history. The disfiguring staining on this particular ceramic made interpretation of the painted design difficult necessitating treatment. Studies have been published on reducing manganese staining from glass, but very little was found for ceramics. Thus, a research project was undertaken to develop a safe method to reduce the manganese staining. A variety of treatment techniques were investigated including Nd:YAG and Er:YAG laser cleaning, and application of a range of chemicals by swabs and poultices. The latter was deemed the most promising option and a variety of poulticing materials, chelators and reducing agents were investigated. To avoid testing on the pelike itself, treatment options were evaluated first on terracotta mock-ups with artificial manganese staining and then on an ancient terracotta plate fragment with archaeological manganese staining. Based on the results, treatment was carried out on the pelike using a poultice of bentonite clay with 80:20 deionized water:ethanol. Bentonite is mostly sodium or calcium montmorillonite but also contains minor amounts of other minerals. It was chosen because it has a high ion exchange capacity (80-150 meq/100g) and thus was able to break the stain’s bond to the ceramic. After the poultice was applied, allowed to slowly dry and removed, a cotton swab dampened in water reduced the manganese staining. Because ethanol is a less effective solvent than water for soluble salts, it replaced a portion of water to minimize the amount of salts brought to the surface during treatment. The 80:20 ratio proved to be the most efficient at preventing the majority of salts while maintaining bentonite’s ability to reduce the staining. The thickness and the water content (Water content (Wc) = weight water/weight dry poultice) of the poultices were critical factors. Poultices used for effective treatment were about 3 mm thick with a Wc of approximately 5. If the poultice was too thin or the liquid content too low, the poultice dried quickly and was ineffective. The manganese staining was characterized by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive microanalysis (SEM-EDS) and x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS). SEM-EDS, XPS and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze the bentonite poultice and the manganese stained terracotta before and after treatment. Results showed that the terracotta surface was unchanged and no bentonite was left behind. XPS analysis enabled identification of the manganese species present on the terracotta before treatment. The treatment of the pelike significantly reduced the manganese staining and achieved the desired outcome of a clearer interpretation of the painted design. The results of this research project can inform future treatments of manganese stained ceramics.

Speakers
avatar for Susan Costello-[PA]

Susan Costello-[PA]

Associate Conservator of Objects and Sculpture, Straus Center for Conservation
Susan D. Costello received a BA in chemistry from College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA in 1996 and her MS in art conservation with a specialty in objects conservation from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in 2004. After graduation, she completed the advanced level... Read More →

Co-Authors
KE

Katherine Eremin

Patricia Cornwell Senior Conservation Scientist, Harvard Art Museums
Katherine Eremin is the Patricia Cornwell Senior Conservation Scientist at the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies/Harvard Art Museums. She previously worked as an inorganic scientist at the National Museums of Scotland and received her PhD in 1994 from the University... Read More →
avatar for Georgina Rayner

Georgina Rayner

Associate Conservation Scientist, Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies
Georgina Rayner is the Associate Conservation Scientist at the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, Harvard Art Museums. Prior to this role Georgina was the Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow in Conservation Science at the same institution. Georgina holds a Masters... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Paintings) Material Insights and Challenges in the Treatment of Maarten de Vos’ "Portrait of a Woman"
Material analysis was crucial in treating Portrait of an Old Woman by Maarten de Vos (National Gallery of Art, Washington). During varnish removal the extent of overpaint became apparent; non-invasive and invasive analytical methods were used to determine its composition and distribution. Micro-sample analysis of the background and sitter’s hat revealed non-original materials: a discolored drying-oil layer (characterized by FTIR and GCMS); at least two layers of oil-based overpaint covering the hat; and at least three layers of oil-based overpaint covering the background. Stratigraphy revealed in cross sections guided decisions regarding treatment in these areas. The non-original oil layer was key to successful overpaint removal, providing a barrier between original and overpaint. More challenging was determining the extent of overpaint on the sitter’s black garment. Microscopic visual examination of the paint surface showed clear evidence of overpaint: a coarse-textured dark paint layer traversing cracks and damage in the underlying paint. A cross-section taken from the garment revealed two dark paint layers without intervening varnish or oil layer. The upper layer (the coarse dark overpaint noted above) was rich in smalt as determined by PLM and SEM-EDX (Si, Co, As, Ni identified). This layer also contains earth pigments (Fe) and small amounts of lead white (Pb). The lower layer did not contain smalt and had larger amounts of lead white and earths with traces of umber (Pb, Fe, Mn). To determine the extent of the dark, smalt-rich overpaint compared to the original paint, X-ray fluorescence imaging spectroscopy was performed. The co-localization of cobalt, arsenic, and nickel in the XRF maps indicated the presence of smalt across the garment. Smalt original to the painting was also present on the right side of the background. However, interestingly, the ratio of nickel to cobalt showed the smalt used in the background had a higher Ni content compared to that found in the garment, suggesting two different sources of smalt were used. XRF maps of Co, As and Ni have distributions that relate to the surface design of the garment; however, XRF maps of Pb, Fe, and Mn show a different design that may relate more to the lower, original paint layer identified in the cross-section. The inclusion of smalt in the overpaint, rare after the seventeenth century, suggests it was an early intervention. Subsequently, tests were undertaken to remove the overpaint from the garment. It was challenging, however, to see a clear separation between the overpaint and the original layer, and it was ultimately decided that full removal imparted too much risk. The dark overpaint was reduced slightly in some areas, and any discontinuities between overpaint and exposed original paint were compensated during retouching. The treatment of Portrait of a Woman offers an example of the important role analytical and imaging techniques play before and during treatment in identifying original versus non-original materials and making informed treatment decisions. By the same token, this project highlights the humbling physical limitations of treatment options that conservators often encounter despite having a thorough understanding of materials.

Speakers
avatar for Kari Rayner

Kari Rayner

Conservator, National Gallery of Art
Kari Rayner is a 2015 graduate of the Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University with a specialization in paintings conservation. Kari completed her fourth year internship at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.  In addition to interning at... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for John Delaney

John Delaney

Senior Imaging Scientist, National Gallery of Art
John K. Delaney, Ph.D. is the Senior Imaging Scientist at the National Gallery of Art, where his research focuses on the development and application of remote sensing imaging methods for the study of works of art.
avatar for Kathryn Dooley

Kathryn Dooley

Research Scientist, National Gallery of Art
Kate Dooley is a Research Scientist in the Scientific Research Department at the National Gallery of Art and is interested in the spectroscopic identification and mapping of materials and chemical imaging methods. She graduated with her Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Michigan... Read More →
avatar for E. Melanie Gifford-[Fellow]

E. Melanie Gifford-[Fellow]

Research Conservator for Painting Technology, National Gallery of Art
E. Melanie Gifford is a Research Conservator for Painting Technology at the National Gallery of Art where she uses technical analysis to consider the artistic decision-making process of Dutch and Flemish painters. She trained in art conservation at the Cooperstown Graduate Program... Read More →
avatar for Michael Palmer

Michael Palmer

Conservation Scientist, National Gallery of Art
Michael Palmer received his graduate training in botany from the University of Maryland in 1979. From 1980-1985 he held the position of wood researcher at Winterthur Museum and also taught in the conservation training program. Mr. Palmer joined the National Gallery of Art in 1985... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Photographic Materials) Platinum and Palladium Photographs - Rediscoveries
Co-Authors
avatar for Constance McCabe

Constance McCabe

Conservator, National Gallery of Art
Constance McCabe is head of photograph conservation at the National Gallery of Art. She earned her M.F.A. in 1982 at Rochester Institute of Technology in the School of Photographic Arts and Sciences. She has served as conservation intern with the International Museum of Photography... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) The Norwich textile reference database, a collections care project
The city of Norwich, United Kingdom still produces beautiful and high-quality woolen textiles, although its heyday was between the 14th and 19th centuries. As a result of this active textile industry, garments and fabrics are found in numerous textile collections around the globe. In spite of its importance, information regarding dyes, mordants and technologies associated with dying practices in the city remain scarce. During the second half of the 18th century, when the trade of raw materials and finished goods was commonplace, merchant manufacturers used pattern books and cards containing textile swatches to facilitate sales and trade. Some of these outstandingly well-preserved pattern books survive. After thorough ethical conversations, a dye-and-mordant database incorporating chromatographic and spectroscopic data is being generated using samples from these pattern books. High-performance liquid chromatography – photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence (XRF), has allowed us to identify distinctive dye and mordant combinations, which, in parallel with collaborative historical and archival research, is aiding in understanding the industry’s practices. More importantly, this will ultimately support collections care by providing sound scientific information related to textiles’ constituent material properties, such as light and moisture sensitivity of certain color components.

Speakers
avatar for Dr. Jocelyn Alcantara Garcia

Dr. Jocelyn Alcantara Garcia

Assistant Professor, Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation
Jocelyn Alcántara-García joined the WUDPAC program in the fall of 2014 after working for about five years in interdisciplinary projects (predominantly in Mexico, where she was born). All projects were conducted in close collaboration with conservators and scientists, and included... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Michael Nix

Michael Nix

Independent Textile and Maritime Historian
Michael Nix obtained his PhD in maritime history at the Department of English Local History, Leicester University in 1991. He worked as the Research Manager for Transport and Technology in Major Projects and Research, Glasgow Museums, and has published books, papers and articles on... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

3:00pm

(Wooden Artifacts) Thomas Sheraton's "Red Oil"
Thomas Sheraton in The Cabinet Dictionary (1794) published a recipe for “red oil” that he recommended for use on mahogany. In 1996 the furniture lab at Peebles Island Conservation Center recreated red oil for use on a reproduction mahogany table. The table was a copy of the original and was placed in the same room with the same light exposure as the original table. This project was reported out to WAG in 1997 and again in 2011 as an example of how original finishes might have changed in appearance during the lifetime of the first owners.
In 2017 it was noticed that the cleaned surfaces of some 18th c. English chairs were remarkably like the available red oil sample boards from the 1996 project. With UV light and UV microscopy the similarity was also strong. Could the cleaned surfaces on the chairs be intact examples from the 18th c. of the use of Sheraton’s red oil?
As it worked out, new chairs were commissioned to round out the set of older English chairs. Since the evidence suggested that red oil was used as the original finish, Sheraton’s recipe was used on the new chairs. The result made it possible to compare the lurid appearance of brand new 18th c. chairs to their appearance after 250 years. More intriguing is that the red oil formula may contain a UV fluorescent ingredient that might make it possible to identify this finish in other situations.

Speakers
avatar for David Bayne

David Bayne

Conservator, NY State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation
Since 1992 David Bayne has been the Furniture Conservator for the New York State Bureau of Historic Sites located at the Peebles Island Resource Center in Waterford New York. David graduated from Reed College with a degree in Biology in 1976. For the next 10 years he worked as a timber... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 3:00pm - 3:30pm
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Architecture + Archaeological Conservation) Evaluation of Organosilicon Materials for Conservation of Ancient Grey Bricks
Grey bricks were produced manually and used as the major traditional building materials in ancient China. However, the characteristics of grey bricks make them vulnerable to water, salt and other environmental factors. Organosilicon materials, such as ethyl silicate, organosiloxanes, and silicone resin, have been tested as the effective protective materials for silicate based stones. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of different organosilicon materials on grey bricks by total and half immersions. The penetration depths, appearance alterations, water adsorptions, hydrophobic properties and compressive strengths were measured after the treatments. The samples were also experienced the salt solution immersion, freeze-thaw and UV aging tests to evaluate the durability of different conservation treatments. It is found that different characteristics of the organosilicon materials lead to different conservation performances, such as water repellence, consolidation effect and durability. But it remains difficult to determine an appropriate material for the conservation of ancient architecture built with grey bricks.

Speakers
avatar for Yue Yuan

Yue Yuan

Student, Zhejiang University

Co-Authors
ZF

Zhengrong Fu

research fellow, Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
Research fellow at Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology.
CM

Chenglei Meng

research fellow, Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
Research fellow at Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology.
JM

Jie Mi

Student, Zhejiang University
Undergraduate of Zhejing University, majoring in cultural heritage and museology.
XW

Xiaozhen Wang

Student, Zhejiang University
Undergraduate of Zhejing University, majoring in cultural heritage and museology.
HZ

Hui Zhang

Associate professor, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Associate Professor,Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China. Mainly reasch about organic chemical synthesis

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Book and Paper) Chancery Master Exhibits - piecing it back together
The focus of this paper is the conservation of a17th c. map damaged by water and iron gall ink. Triggered by a document request for the Victoria County History project, archivist Amanda Bevan discovered the bad condition of a 17th c. map, which is of great historical interest. The map is part of a group of objects (C 110 64-67) dating from the mid-15th c. to the 18th c., which all had been evidence material in a court case: In his will, Samuel Travers dedicated the proceeds from the sale of his land to the establishment of a foundation for poor naval lieutenants. Travers’ will became the subject of much dispute and litigation and the trust relating to the Naval Knights was not validated until 26 July 1793, almost seventy years after his death. The map appears to have been worked with to the extent of its material failing, which led to the production of an 18th c. copy. The transfer process of the ink drawings involved pricking through the paper onto the new support. The map also shows staining from water damage, which would have contributed to the breakdown and removal of the adhesive holding the lining to the paper and exacerbated the iron gall ink damage. The three factors together, the iron gall ink degradation, the pricking and the water damage, led to the paper delaminating in fragments like a jigsaw. New treatment approaches for iron gall ink damage included the use of gels and a heat mat. This conservation project is a reflexion of recent developments in paper and book conservation at TNA's Collection Care Department. It included the identification of materials and the development of tailored conservation treatments with the help of the conservation scientists. It required historical research provided by the archivists and non-TNA historians. As a result, the map is being used as a case study for in-house training and for various outreach events. In the newly created position of the Senior Conservation Manager for Single Object Treatments I have been focussing on high profile documents and conservation challenges and directing the development and adaptation of new treatment methods. The present conservation project lent itself to contribute to TNA’s conservation skill development programme and to improve the organisation’s conservation methodology for single objects.

Speakers
avatar for Sonja Schwoll-[ACR]

Sonja Schwoll-[ACR]

Senior Conservation Manager - Treatment Single Objects, The National Archives
Sonja Schwoll ACR (Icon, UK) is Senior Conservation Manager – Treatment Single Objects at The National Archives. Previously, Sonja was Subject Leader for the Conservation of Books and Library Materials Programme at West Dean College and Associate Lecturer on the MA Conservation... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr. Lora Angelova

Dr. Lora Angelova

Conservation Scientist, The National Archives, Kew
Lora Angelova is a Conservation Scientist at The National Archives, Kew. She obtained a PhD in chemistry from Georgetown University in conjunction with the scientific research department of National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC and has carried out research into gel cleaning of a... Read More →
RM

Rose Mitchell

Map Archivist, The National Archives
Rose Mitchell has for many years been map archivist at The National Archives of the United Kingdom and an historian of cartography.  She is co-author of Maps: their untold stories (Bloomsbury, 2014) and has written and given talks on a broad range of map-related topics based on the... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Collection Care) Making the Most of What You Have: Digital Documentation Solutions Utilizing Existing Software
Documentation is an important aspect of a conservator’s work and is essential for communication between conservators in the present and the future. While vital, documentation using traditional methods can also be very time consuming, when time is an ever more limited commodity. In an effort to streamline the documentation process, conservators at the Saint Louis Art Museum (SLAM) have implemented a process for digital condition reporting using Microsoft OneNote and tablet computers. While a number of options for digital condition reporting have presented themselves in recent years, these tend to rely on specialized software or apps and are often restricted to a single type of operating system. By using Microsoft OneNote, already a part of the museum’s IT infrastructure, and tablet PCs the conservation department has been able to improve the efficiency of documentation processes without purchasing additional software or placing undue burden on SLAM’s IT department. This paper will focus on the genesis and implementation of digital condition reporting at SLAM using Microsoft OneNote, including an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the process. The potential for further applications of Microsoft OneNote for collections documentation will also be discussed.

Speakers
avatar for Raina Chao-[PA]

Raina Chao-[PA]

Associate Objects Conservator, Saint Louis Art Museum
Raina Chao received a B.S. in Chemistry and a B.A. in Art History from the University of California, Berkeley in 2007 and her M.A. in Art History and Advanced Certificate in Art Conservation from the Conservation Center at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University in 2011. She... Read More →
avatar for L. H.(Hugh) Shockey-[PA]

L. H.(Hugh) Shockey-[PA]

Head of Conservation | Objects Conservator, Saint Louis Art Museum
L. H. (Hugh) Shockey Jr. MS, AIC-PA is Head of Conservation and Object Conservator at the Saint Louis Art Museum. Previously he was the objects conservator at the Lunder Conservation Center of the Smithsonian American Art Museum where he performed treatment on electronic media and... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Mike Peters

Mike Peters

System Administrator, Saint Louis Art Museum
Mike Peters is a past System Administrator in the IT department at the Saint Louis Art Museum.

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Electronic Media) Sounds Challenging: Documenting the Identity and Iterations of Ragnar Kjartansson's "The Visitors"
This talk demonstrates the application of a documentation framework for the aural elements in media installation art that the speaker presented at the 2017 Annual Meeting. The focus of this case study is "The Visitors" by Ragnar Kjartansson, a work jointly owned by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) and the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York. It was recently installed for the "Soundtracks" exhibition at SFMOMA. This large-scale, nine-channel video performance piece has been exhibited worldwide to great acclaim. The setting of the work is a stately, aged mansion in rural upstate New York. The artist gathered fellow musicians there in 2012 to perform an original composition with lyrics inspired by the writings of the poet and performance artist Ásdís Sif Gunnarsdóttir, his ex-wife. One of the themes in the work is the break-up of their marriage, giving the piece tremendous emotional range which has a corresponding broad dynamic range in terms of sound. The piece involves vocals and numerous musical instruments including two pianos, drums, electric and acoustic guitars, bass, banjo, accordion, and cello, as well as the sounds of the natural landscape, punctuated by two cannon blasts. Life-sized video projections of the individual musicians encircle the audience, whose experience ranges from contemplation of the solo performers to immersion in the music of the entire ensemble. This case study highlights the importance of collaboration between conservators and sound engineers, both within the institution and, where applicable, in the artist's studio. Central to the conservation documentation of the aural aspects of "The Visitors" was an in-depth interview with the artist's director of sound, Christopher W. McDonald. This talk will cover the identity of the work, including both its aural and visual aspects, characterization and assessment of the digital files, significant properties of audiovisual equipment and the acoustic environment, and documentation of the iteration at SFMOMA. Various methods, challenges, and limitations of documenting sound will be discussed, along with future directions for this research, including the further development of the framework and terminology for sound art documentation.

Speakers
avatar for Amy Brost

Amy Brost

Assistant Media Conservator, The Museum of Modern Art
Amy Brost is an art conservator living in Brooklyn. She is currently Assistant Media Conservator at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York. She was Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Media Conservation at MoMA from 2016-2017. In 2016, she earned an M.A. in the History of Art and Archaeology... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Objects) Loss Compensation on Ceramics using Photogrammetry, Digital Modeling and 3D Printing
This paper will describe some tools for producing detailed, 3D printed restorations for ceramics that may also be applicable to other areas of conservation. Photogrammetry is a 3D imaging process that is relatively easy to do with standard photography equipment in the conservation lab, provided one has a computer with a sufficient processing capability. Agisoft PhotoScan was used to create three dimensional mesh models of several different ceramics that were in need of restoration. The project involved experimentation with available 3D modeling and sculpting programs. Autodesk Meshmixer, a free software system, was selected to digitally ”sculpt” and process the meshes for a 3D print in resin. The finished resin parts were then easily attached to the body of the ceramic and painted using conventional methods. The ceramics in this study include a small Meissen porcelain with a missing right hand and eyeglass lens, a 12th century Persian ceramic with a missing handle, and an 18th century English delftware posset pot lacking sculptural elements on the lid. The use of 3D printed parts resolved a variety of problems commonly found in ceramic restoration, such as complex and simple modeling, shiny glazed surfaces, achieving fine detail on very small elements, mirroring of meshes to create a right hand from a digital model of the left, and the need for precise joins on complex break edges. While the learning curve for using these programs is steep, familiarity makes the operator more efficient, and there are a number of advantages to printing these restorations instead of using conventional techniques. First of all, handling of the artifact is dramatically reduced, an important safety factor. Conventional modeling and casting of very small detailed parts, such as a missing porcelain hand, is challenging for many, and may require some creative interpretation by the conservator. However, with digital models, it is possible to provide a more “authentic” restoration. For example, a missing left hand can be created and articulated from a digital mesh model of the right hand. Thus, the restored right hand, as a mirror image of the original left hand, could be considered a closer iteration of the artist’s intent. It is also very easy to create a digital mesh of the “stump” or break edges of the ceramic and use this to make a nearly perfect match in the printed restoration. One practical and timesaving advantage is that much of the imaging and printing work can be subcontracted to volunteers, students or contractors who have specialized digital skills. Sharing the highly accurate digital models based on laser scanning or photogrammetry will also make similar examples by the same artist or workshop easier to share, either for the purpose of loss compensation or study. The digital files are also available for future research. Finally, the use of 3D digital models allows for experimentation that is helpful in discussing positioning and articulation of restorations with curators. The techniques discussed here are likely to have applications beyond ceramic restoration.

Speakers
avatar for Kathleen Garland-[Fellow]

Kathleen Garland-[Fellow]

Conservator, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
Kathleen M. Garland received her BA in Art History from Brown University, and her MA in Art Conservation from the State University of New York, Cooperstown. She completed her internship in the Sculpture Conservation Department at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. From 1986-89... Read More →
avatar for Stephanie Spence

Stephanie Spence

Conservation Fellow, Toledo Museum of Art
Stephanie Spence received her M.A. and Certificate of Advanced Study from the Art Conservation Program at Buffalo State College, State University of New York where she specialized in objects conservation, with interests in Asian lacquer and metals. Stephanie received her B.A. in Art... Read More →

Co-Authors
RB

R. Bruce North

Conservation Department Volunteer, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
R. Bruce North received his BS in Ocean Engineering from Florida Institute of Technology and his MS in Civil Engineering from the University of Houston. He retired from a career in Structural Engineering and Project Management and is currently providing volunteer assistance to the... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Paintings) Unusual activities between image and panel: a sixteenth-century painting of St. Catherine in the Yale University Art Gallery
In his 1916 catalogue of the James Jackson Jarves collection, the art historian Osvald Sirén considered a small painting of St. Catherine of Siena and remarked that the picture “...has lost a good deal of its pictorial bouquet.” His sympathetic but dismissive words are one of the only published statements on this painting, which dates to sixteenth-century Siena and after a series of attributions is now being reconsidered as a late work of Sodoma. Overlooked by the mid-twentieth century cleaning campaign that affected the majority of the Italian paintings at Yale, the painting remained understudied until the fall of 2016, when it was pulled from storage for conservation treatment and analysis. The resulting project uncovered an unusual relationship between the image formed by the paint film and the support beneath it, which in turn became a determining factor in the treatment the painting received. Questions concerning how the image layer relates to the support immediately arose when examination of the painting began. X-radiography, followed by computerized tomography (CT) scanning, confirmed that worm tunnels had been filled with a radio-opaque material from the front of the panel, not the reverse. This observation establishes that the painting was either transferred to its present support, painted on an old, previously worm-eaten piece of wood, or painted on paper then mounted to old wood. The possibility of a transfer seemed, initially, most likely: no trace of paper has yet been found, the ground varies markedly in thickness as it extends across the panel, and certain areas of paint appear to rest directly on a thick, glue-like layer. However, the CT scan also confirmed that all but two of the largest disruptions to the surface of the painting correspond directly to knots in the present panel. Such connections between panel and paint film indicates that the support has long induced damage to the image it holds—an observation in tension with the aforementioned indications that the two materials were not always attached to one another. The working provisional explanation for the fraught relationship between image and panel is as follows: at a date prior to the painting’s purchase by Jarves in roughly 1850, the image layer was temporarily separated from the panel. The exposed face of the panel was coated with the observed radio-opaque material, and the image layer was re-glued to its original support, in what could be named an “auto-transfer.” The paper will explore this possibility alongside others. Precedents within the transfer literature will be described, including a little-discussed 1751 reference to an auto-transfer technique. Since the potential St. Catherine auto-transfer has a terminus post quem of 1850, this example could complicate the prevalent notion that nineteenth-century restorers considered the essence of the work of art to reside only in the image layer. 

Speakers
avatar for Annika Finne

Annika Finne

PhD student, Institute of Fine Arts New York University
Annika Finne received a M.A. in Art History and an M.S. in the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, with a speciality in paintings conservation, from the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, in 2016. She is currently a Robert Lehman Fellow for Graduate Study in the... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Irma Passeri

Irma Passeri

Senior Conservator of Paintings, Yale University Art Gallery
Irma Passeri is Senior Paintings Conservator at the Yale University Art Gallery. She received her degree in the Conservation of Easel Paintings from the Conservation School of the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, in Florence in 1998. Prior to working for the Yale Art Gallery, she worked... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Photographic Materials) Finding a Balance: Conservation of the Dolley Madison Cased Image from the Greensboro History Museum
Cased images differ significantly from conventional forms of paper-based photography. The daguerreotype is distinguished by its metallic composition: a thin copper plate with a highly polished silver surface was vulnerable to marring, abrasion, scratches, tarnish, rust, and corrosion. As a result, cases were constructed from decoratively covered wood or ornamentally molded thermoplastic to protect these fragile images. Conservation of these cased images is complicated. Not only is one dealing with a photographic image but also with leather, velvet, wood, plastic, cloth, metal, glass, and varnish. As a conservator it is important that the conservation and preservation approaches find a balance between the photographic image and its traditional housing. Using the Dolley Madison cased image from The Greensboro History Museum, as an example, this talk will discuss the conservation of the daguerreotype plate and its severely compromised gold stamped blue velvet case that was created in the semblance of a book. Adopting techniques and materials from book conservation as well as objects conservation, the cover was reattached, the spine was repaired and modified to create a safer opening of the case, and missing tray components were recreated using traditional water gilding techniques on wood.

Speakers
avatar for Monique C. Fischer-[Fellow]

Monique C. Fischer-[Fellow]

Senior Photograph Conservator, Northeast Document Conservation Center
Monique C. Fischer is the senior photograph conservator at the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NEDCC) in Andover, MA.  She holds a master’s degree in art conservation from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Museum, and a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Smith College... Read More →
avatar for Terra Huber-[PA]

Terra Huber-[PA]

Assistant Paper Conservator, NEDCC
Terra Huber has studied and worked in the field of conservation since 2009. They are currently an Assistant Paper Conservator at the Northeast Document Conservation Center and have completed internships at The Newberry Library, the Walters Art Museum, the Boston Athenaeum, the Historical... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) A sizable sooty soiled surface: Analyzing and evaluating methods for surface cleaning a large painted muslin
Throughout the documentation and treatment of an unusually large painted muslin, analytical methods helped to both characterize the object, and evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. Displayed at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, the muslin painted by Strike the Kettle (Lakota), a follower of Sitting Bull, depicts multiple scenes including gift giving, cooking, and warriors on horseback. The muslin was treated for the major long-term exhibition, Americans, at the National Museum of the American Indian. Previous extended display in the industrial urban centers of Chicago and New York City resulted in heavy, sooty, lead-containing surface soiling. Prominent tar-like stains in the center had haloed tidelines from an earlier treatment attempt. Pigments, binder, and stain residue were characterized using microscopy, portable x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), microscope-FTIR, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Analyses confirmed that common late 19th century trade pigments were used with a proteinaceous binder. All paint colors were evaluated for light stability using microfadeometry, revealing all but one were stable. The black stain was characterized as an oily resinous compound with surprisingly high lead levels. The treatment priority was to reduce the stain and its associated tideline, and disfiguring surface soiling. Vacuuming the muslin through Vellux fabric trapped significant soiling, however the visual impact was minimal requiring additional dry cleaning treatment. Of the four sponges evaluated, the vulcanized rubber soot sponge was most effective though somewhat abrasive based on cleaning tests, microscopy, FTIR, and pXRF. The need for multiple hands working simultaneously over a large surface area necessitated a systematic approach to ensure consistency. This cleaning methodology produced large quantities of heavily soiled Vellux and sponges, allowing for a thorough study of cleaning mechanisms and soiling characteristics. While the tar-like stain responded poorly to all solvents tested, ethanol and a suction platen successfully reduced the tidelines created by the previous treatment. The treatment methods dramatically improved the muslin’s appearance. Final pXRF analyses indicated the soot sponge was more effective at reducing overall lead levels than the use of a Vellux-covered vacuum alone. Portable XRF also detected lead levels on the used Vellux and soot sponges, but not the nitrile gloves, which had implications for material disposal as potential hazardous waste.

Speakers
avatar for Susan Heald

Susan Heald

Textile Conservator, National Museum of the American Indian
Susan Heald has been the National Museum of the American Indian’s textile conservator since 1994, where she has supervised many pre-program interns and post-graduate fellows. Prior to NMAI, she served as the Minnesota Historical Society’s textile conservator, and was a Smithsonian... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Nora Frankel

Nora Frankel

Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Nora Frankel is an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian. Past work includes positions at the Rijksmuseum, Burrell Collection, Death Valley National Park, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, and... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Gwénaëlle Kavich

Dr. Gwénaëlle Kavich

Conservation Scientist, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Gwénaëlle Kavich, Conservation Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute, earned a BSc in Chemistry from The Nottingham Trent University (U.K.) and a PhD in Chemical Sciences from the University of Pisa (Italy). She contributes to a wide range of technical studies... Read More →
avatar for Thomas Lam

Thomas Lam

conservation scientist, Smithsonian Conservation Institute
Thomas Lam has a Ph.D. in Ceramics from Alfred University. After his PhD, Thomas completed a postdoc at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Thomas is a Physical Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute (MCI), where he applies his knowledge... Read More →
avatar for Nicole Little

Nicole Little

Physical Scientist, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Nicole Little is a Physical Scientist at the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum Conservation Institute. She received both her B.A. and M.A. in Anthropology from the University of Missouri-Columbia, where her master’s research dealt with the compositional analysis of Mayan ceramics... Read More →
avatar for Annaick Parker

Annaick Parker

collections contractor, Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum
Annaick Keruzec is a textile conservator who currently works at the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum (ACM) as a collections specialist focusing on photographically illustrated quilts and a rehousing project. From 2015-2017 she was an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow at the Smithsonian... Read More →
avatar for Megan Doxsey Whitfield

Megan Doxsey Whitfield

Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Object Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Megan Doxsey-Whitfield is currently a Mellon Fellow in Objects Conservation at the National Museum of the American Indian. She is a graduate of the Queen’s University Master of Art Conservation program (MAC ’15) and holds a Bachelor of Arts in Art History from the University of... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:00pm - 4:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:30pm

(Architecture + Archaeological Conservation) Preventive conservation training in the Moche Valley, Peru
The MOCHE, Inc. Conservation Field School in summer 2017 (Huanchaco, Peru) provided training in preventive conservation and collections care on archaeological sites to binational undergraduate, graduate, and pre-program students . This paper reports on the program, which, co-directed by an archaeologist and conservator, aimed to bridge the gaps between training for work in the field and for work in museum collections. The program provided the opportunity for students to gain an encompassing perspective of the life-history of material culture from excavation through processing and analysis, to storage and display. We believe this holistic perspective is essential for all cultural heritage professionals, yet training programs of this type are not always available. Participants came to the program with varying levels of skills and experience in archaeology and conservation. American students and Peruvian students from the Universidad Nacional de Trujillo worked together on excavated materials from the regional survey led by UNT's archaeology lab. The students participated in archaeological excavation, finds processing, and recording, working hands-on with finds from the current and previous field seasons. As part of program curriculum they also learned about and engaged in basic conservation and collections management principles and practices. This work complemented the field school’s instruction in the materials that make up the archaeological record and the prehistory of the north coast of Peru. Students used close observation of the project collections to understand how the objects were made and used, and identified modifications in the objects from initial use-life and those occurring during deposition and post-excavation. Students visited archaeological storage facilities in Peru and learned about principles of safe storage and packing for archaeological finds. At the close of the program, students carried out some of the proposed improvements for safe objects packing using appropriate materials and methods. The students also visited archaeological sites and museums throughout the region to understand the benefits and risks that tourism development brings to local communities. This program is part of MOCHE Inc’s broader heritage preservation efforts. MOCHE, INC (Mobilizing Opportunities for Community Heritage Empowerment, http://savethemoche.org/) is an organization founded by archaeologists dedicated to improving the standard of living in impoverished communities, preserving archaeological sites, and promoting research and education on the rich cultural heritage of Peru. MOCHE Inc.’s work over the past 20 years in Peru has demonstrated that close community ties and community-oriented projects go hand in hand with preserving archaeological sites. This project demonstrates that preventive conservation need not be narrowly construed as concerning only tasks such as managing museum and storage environments (of course very important topics on their own) but can also encompass a variety of other community engagement and education activities crucial to the goal of heritage preservation.

Speakers
avatar for Jessica Walthew

Jessica Walthew

Conservator, Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum
Jessica Walthew is an objects conservator at Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum. She holds an MA in Art History and Archaeology with advanced certificate in Conservation from NYU's Institute of Fine Arts, Conservation Center. Her research and teaching interests include history... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Alicia Boswell

Alicia Boswell

Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow, Cultures of Conservation, Bard Graduate Center/Metropolitan Museum of Art
I am an anthropological archaeologist whose research examines the dynamics of complex societies and interactions between PrenColumbian groups in different ecological zones of the Andes. My field research prioritizes examining the lived experience of household and producer communities... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:30pm - 5:00pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

4:30pm

(Book and Paper) Peregrinations of an 18th-Century Armenian Prayer Scroll
Armenian prayer scrolls are Christian talismans used to protect bearers from harm, to promote healing of illness, and to ensure good fortune. Hmayil, the Armenian name for these scrolls, means “enchantment ” in Old Armenian. Early examples were manuscripts, but printed scrolls became common with the advent of movable type. There are three printed Armenian prayer scrolls in the collections of the Library of Congress. All were printed at about the same date, in the same city. All are illustrated, but the individual palettes used for coloring the woodcuts are very different. This presentation will focus on the recent conservation treatment of a severely damaged hmayil, and will highlight the complicated and precise procedures of the treatment and housing as well as the scientific analysis of the scroll. The hmayil was printed in Constantinople in 1729; the text was printed on European paper with movable type and the illustrations added as woodcuts. It is about 3.5 inches wide, but 15 feet long. When the Library received the scroll, it was broken into fourteen fragments of varying lengths despite evidence of several efforts to restore and repair it. Stains and surface dirt disfigured the paper and obscured the hand-colored illustrations. Given the size of the object and the labor intensive treatment needed, the conservators considered treatment materials and methods to determine a treatment process that would be both efficient and sustainable. In addition, they carefully organized the project to maintain consistency in procedures while retaining flexibility to respond to new challenges that might arise. The treatment employed materials relatively new to conservation and blended Western and Eastern conservation techniques. For example, fragments were washed on layers of non-woven polyester-cellulose cloth (Tekwipe®), chosen for its strong vertical capillary action and reusability. To stabilize fragments and reconstruct the original sequence of the scroll, primary and secondary linings of two different Asian papers were applied using a combination of traditional Asian and Western lining techniques. To dry the linings, conservators used both Japanese materials and methods for tensioned drying, as well as Western papermakers’ felts. Since the strength and flexibility of the paper did not permit returning the scroll into its original format, a Western method of storage and presentation - window mats – was used, but their structure was tailored to meet the special needs of the curator and researchers. The conservators investigated the colorants used in the scroll by non-destructive analytical techniques: multi-spectral imaging and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The findings will be discussed in the presentation. The characterization also establishes a future direction for research by a multidisplinary team to compare different color palettes from the Library’s hmayils and the reference collection of Armenian pigments available to the Library, with the goal of contributing to the knowledge of historical Armenian artist’s materials.

Speakers
avatar for Xiaoping Cai

Xiaoping Cai

Pine Tree Foundation Fellow, The Morgan Library & Museum
Xiaoping Cai is currently the Pine Tree Foundation Rare Book Conservation fellow in the Thaw Conservation Center of the Morgan Library & Museum. Prior to the fellowship, she completed an Advanced Internship in Book Conservation at the Library of Congress in Washington D.C. During... Read More →
avatar for Emily Williams

Emily Williams

Conservator, Conservation Center for Art & Historic Artifacts
Emily obtained her bachelor’s degree in conservation from Camberwell College of Art before receiving a  postgraduate diploma in Art History from Courtauld Institute of Art and a Master of Arts in conservation from University College London. She is currently undertaking a two-year... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Sylvia Albro-[PA]

Sylvia Albro-[PA]

Senior Paper Conservator, Library of Congress
Sylvia Albro was graduated from the New York State University Graduate Program in the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works in Cooperstown New York in 1982. She completed a graduate internship in conservation of works of art on paper at the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco... Read More →
avatar for Levon Avdoyan

Levon Avdoyan

Area Specialist for Armenia and Georgia, Library of Congress
Levon Avdoyan earned his MA, MPhil and PhD in Ancient History with a Minor in Armenian History and Civilization from Columbia University. After spending a year as a fellow at Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies in Georgetown, he joined the Library of Congress in 1977, first... Read More →
avatar for Lynn Brostoff

Lynn Brostoff

Research Chemist, Library of Congress
Lynn B. Brostoff holds a Masters Degree in Polymer Materials Science and a Ph.D. in Chemistry. In addition, Lynn holds a Masters Degree in Art History and a Certificate of Conservation with emphasis in Paper Conservation. For the last 25 years, Lynn has worked as a conservation scientist... Read More →
avatar for Claire Dekle

Claire Dekle

Senior Book Conservator, Library of Congress
Claire Dekle is a Senior Book Conservator at the Library of Congress. Her experience as a conservation liaison to the Manuscript Division of the Library, as well as her treatment responsibilities, rekindled an early interest in the conservation of iron-gall ink. She was a member of... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:30pm - 5:00pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

4:30pm

(Collection Care) How to Label Everything – A Review of Current Best Practices in Natural History Labelling
Natural history collections are used primarily for research by scientists and academics. These collections are continually growing to track information about species and populations in the natural world. These collections are often quite large and labels are fundamental to help distinguish one specimen from its similar looking neighbours. Labels in natural history collections often contain original information which is not recorded elsewhere in museum records and specimens without labels are generally regarded as having no research value. Labels should last as long as their associated specimens. Finding materials to ensure the archival properties for each element of the label, including paper, plastic, inks and adhesives, can be a daunting affair. At the Canadian Museum of Nature, we undertook a comprehensive review of our labelling protocols. The results have been disseminated on the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections wiki page on Best Practices for Labelling Natural History Collections. It addresses a tremendous range of labelling issues that can be easily adapted to other collections from inorganic to organic, microscopic to massive, and wet to dry to ultra-cold. The project’s aim was to improve the decision making about the selection and purchasing of labelling materials. We presented our results to maximize end user benefits. We identified three generalized natural history labelling scenarios: dry labels, wet labels and ultra-cold labels. For each scenario, we made a decision tree to clarify and highlight the logic behind the selection of certain materials. To facilitate purchasing of the best materials, we summarized key archival concepts, terms, and symbols used by commercial suppliers that curatorial staff are likely to encounter on supplier websites. We also summarized relevant industry and government standards relating to archival materials, which could be used to objectively evaluate materials. Finally, we summarized previously-developed simple testing protocols that could be used to evaluate purchased materials once acquired. Focusing on the end users, through decision trees to present key information to facilitate purchasing, has been well received and has great potential to be adapted to other categories of archival materials for which conservators make recommendations. This project also highlighted the challenges in making effective recommendations when new archival materials continue to be developed and adopted. As a profession, we therefore need to continue to have higher level discussions among all stakeholders including, but not limited to, manufacturers, purchasers, conservators, conservation scientists, and standards and testing organizations. A more comprehensive understanding of material science, industry standards and simple tests for archival quality will help collections care staff make informed decisions when selecting labeling materials.

Co-Authors
LC

Luci Cipera

Conservator, Canadian Museum of Nature
Luci Cipera works as a conservator at the Canadian Museum of Nature. Luci joined the Canadian Museum of Nature in 2004 on the team responsible for moving the bird and mammal galleries during the museum’s renovation. She is a graduate of the Master of Art Conservation program at... Read More →
avatar for Erika Range

Erika Range

Conservation Technician, Canada Science and Technology Museum
Erika Range is an emerging cultural heritage professional and conservator. She completed her undergraduate degree from Trent University in Anthropology, graduating with high honours in 2008. She has also completed a master’s degree from University College London (2010) in Principles... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:30pm - 5:00pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:30pm

(Electronic Media) VR tools as spatial documentation
As a Time-based media conservator at Tate, recent experience installing complex multi-channel sound pieces led me to think more deeply about how we install and document these types of artworks.

Our aim as conservators is to understand the display parameters of a work, defining whether visual and technical properties of equipment or space are conceptual or incidental. This influences our options for the preservation of an artwork. Acoustic aspects of a work have mostly related to specific equipment, or appropriate spaces for installation, but we do not currently capture information regarding the acoustic properties of a space, leading us to consider the questions we want to ask regarding the environment in which an artwork is installed.

In looking at the relationship between the aesthetics and the acoustics of space holistically, we can easily see how the design of a space becomes an intervention into a work: lessening the acoustic reflection of a space becomes a treatment. In comparison to video and visual works, where, as a community we have a rich and nuanced vocabulary to describe the work within a space and the treatments we might apply, the corresponding vocabulary and shared understanding of audio treatment feels frozen in a more primitive state. This is reflected by our documentation, which historically has been limited to text and pictorial representation. What if our documentation closer resembled the artwork medium?

In this presentation I would like to share our experimentation in practically applying current recording technologies to documentation, our exploration of it’s uses, limitations and dissemination. Starting with the technique of binaural recording, we are able to accurately capture the spatiality of sound within a space, and provide greater context by a point of view video recording, for viewing on a monitor or a VR headset for a more immersive experience. This can expand into spherical photos and videos, in which the wearer of a headset is able to freely look around a space.

Once virtual reality is introduced as a tool, it raises many questions about where accurate documentation ends and synthetic reconstruction begins, and for what purposes should the resulting documentation be used for? Given how easy it is to embed 360 files in a web browser to be viewed on a phone, should we be rethinking the idea of the viewing copy, or the thumbnail image?

In sharing this, I hope to raise questions around a potential new documentation framework, and also highlight a new and exciting area of ethics.

Speakers
avatar for Jack McConchie

Jack McConchie

Time-based media Conservator, Tate
Jack McConchie is a Time-based media conservator at Tate, responsible for installing works across all four Tate sites, as well as developing collection care and acquisition strategies. He graduated from the University of Glasgow in 2004 with a degree in Electronics and Music, before... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 4:30pm - 5:00pm
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:30pm

(Objects) The Use of 3D Printing for Casting Proportional Replicas Used in the Treatment of Articulated Skeletons
The anatomical accuracy of natural science specimens is important for their use in education and display. This case study explores the recreation of missing elements of an articulated brant goose skeleton (Branta bernicla) from a study collection in the Ornithology Department at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). The articulated skeleton was treated during a course at the Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University (NYU). In current AMNH practice, molds taken from other specimens of the same species are often used to cast replacement elements missing from an articulated skeleton. However, the goose skeleton in this case study is larger than other brant specimens at the AMNH, so casts made in the usual way would not have been proportionally correct. To create replicas of the required size, the analogous bones from a smaller specimen were laser scanned at NYU’s LaGuardia Studio, a facility providing advanced digital media services to faculty, students, and visiting artists. The scans were enlarged using modeling software and then used to 3D-print a model of each bone. In order to ensure low cost with long-term stability, the printed models were then used to create silicone molds from which casts were made in a stable epoxy. This presentation will detail the options available for 3D scanning, file manipulation, and printing, with emphasis on cost, practicability, and long-term stability. Both the printing process and printing materials will be discussed. For this case study, the final cost was under $60 for the scanning and printing of five small bones. Including creating the second molds, the treatment required about 20 hours, spread over a few weeks. The lag time was mostly due to scheduling with the LaGuardia Studio rather than the necessity of the process. Combining digital technology with traditional mold-making techniques allowed for the more accurate calculation of shape and proportion of the bone replicas and the creation of highly detailed molds quickly and economically.

Speakers
avatar for Christine E Haynes

Christine E Haynes

Assistant Objects Conservator, Preservation Arts
CHRISTINE HAYNES is Assistant Objects Conservator at Preservation Arts (Oakland, California). Her research interest is in modern and contemporary art, especially plastic polymers and composite material. Christine trained at the Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts NYU... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Julia	Sybalsky

Julia Sybalsky

Senior Associate Conservator, American Museum of Natural History
Julia Sybalsky is an Associate Conservator at the AMNH, where she began working in January of 2010. She was an important contributor in the recently-completed renovation of dioramas in the Hall of North American Mammals and the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Hall. Julia's work supports... Read More →
avatar for Fran E. Ritchie

Fran E. Ritchie

Conservator, Harpers Ferry Center
Fran Ritchie is the Conservator of ethnographic materials, natural science, and decorative arts objects at the National Park Service (NPS) Harpers Ferry Center. Prior to working for the NPS, she was an assistant conservator in the Anthropology Objects Conservation Lab at the American... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:30pm - 5:00pm
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

4:30pm

(Paintings) Research and Conservation of Peter Paul Rubens, The Raising of the Cross, oil on paper, 1638
The Raising of the Cross, an oil painting on paper, was painted by Rubens for the production of an engraving by Jan Witdoeck and the image is based on the triptych of the same title, now in the Cathedral of our Lady in Antwerp and painted by Rubens in 1610-11. The sketch was acquired in 1928, as an 'oil on canvas' by the Art Gallery of Toronto as it was called, from the Holford Collection through Christie’s London. The painting was ‘cleaned’ by Thos. Agnew and Sons, London prior to the sale. Extensive restoration followed: first in 1937 in New York City and, after two thefts in 1954 and 1959, at the Art Gallery of Ontario. It is not known at what point the paper was lined to canvas but it is currently glue lined to cotton canvas. Restoration methods followed the traditions of painting conservation and the paper support at some point became obscured by extensive overpainting. Documentation and understanding of the work was essential to complex decisions of removal and the reconstruction of areas that suffered loss of form and detail. Interruptions in the surface tonality by discoloured retouchings and the discontinuity and flattening of form due to severe abrasion and loss of surface paint interfered with one’s appreciation of the work. Scientists at the Canadian Conservation Institute provided support in the initial investigations and at intervals in the treatment process by undertaking non-invasive x-ray fluorescence and analysis of samples as required. Samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry and, in one case, by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Infrared Reflectography (OSIRIS) was carried out by Rachel Billinge, National Gallery, London. Removal of restoration additions was challenging and time consuming and areas of ambiguity remain untouched. Recent work exposes at least some of the original intentions of the artist. Much of the paper support however modified in colour and texture, now contributes to the final image. The leached and damaged paint layers were minimally saturated with MS2A and retouching carried out with watercolour. The relationship of the sketch to the engraving and to the earlier painting will be discussed. Both informed the finish of the AGO painting. Several pentimenti remain visible and reveal the working method of the artist. The painting was reframed in a new frame to conceal the eight centimeter extension at the top border which is not by Rubens.

Speakers
avatar for Sandra Webster Cook

Sandra Webster Cook

Conservator of Paintings, Historical and Modern, Art Gallery of Ontario
Sandra Webster-Cook became an employee of the Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) in 1987. She is currently responsible for the conservation of the historical and modern paintings in the collection of the AGO. Her work on the Canadian Historical collection included research on the paintings... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Kate Helwig

Kate Helwig

Senior Conservation Scientist, Canadian Conservation Institute, Canadian Conservation Institute
Kate Helwig has an honours B.Sc. in Chemistry from the University of Toronto and a Master’s degree in Physical Chemistry from Stanford University in California. She studied artifact conservation at Queen’s University and received a Master’s Degree in Art Conservation in 1992... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Alexandra (Sasha) Suda

Dr. Alexandra (Sasha) Suda

Curator European Art. Fraser Elliott Chair, Print & Drawing Council, Art Gallery of Ontario
Sasha Suda, who holds a PhD from the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, joined the AGO in 2011 as Assistant Curator, European Art. She was promoted first to Associate Curator, European in 2013, then Curator and R. Fraser Elliott Chair, Print & Drawing Council in 2015, and... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:30pm - 5:00pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

4:30pm

(Photographic Materials) Investigation of Portrait with Applied Oil Color
A small painted portrait of Carl Maria Von Weber on a wood support was treated at West Lake Conservators. Analysis confirmed the presence of a silver-based underlying image, bringing particular challenges to the treatment approach. The proposed presentation focuses on the analysis and investigation that was performed in the attempt to positively identify a photographic base and how it was ultimately inconclusive. The decision making process for the treatment that was carried out was informed by the possibility of the presence of a photographic print. High Energy Synchrotron Source XRF analysis confirmed and mapped the presence of silver which could signify either an underlying photographic print or a silver point drawing. Additional microscopy was carried out as well as cross-section analysis but the presence of a protein (gelatin or albumen) that would hone in on determining the presence of a photographic process could not be positively determined. As a private conservation practice, West Lake Conservators has limited access to analytical tools and data processing. After taking the analysis as far as possible through the generous collaboration of local institutions and colleagues, it was prescient to offer the private owner of the object an expedite and practical treatment proposal. Cleaning and consolidation treatment were carried out taking into consideration the possibility of an underlying photographic print with a water-sensitive binder. Although the investigation was ultimately inconclusive in positively establishing the presence of a photographic print and although the treatment that was carried out is not innovative, the process of attempting to characterize an object within the constraints of a private practice has value in itself and may add to the knowledge for further research into the this type of composite structure.

Speakers
avatar for Abbott Nixon

Abbott Nixon

Painting Conservation Assistant & Operations Manager, West Lake Conservators
Abbott received her B.A. in Arts Administration from SUNY Fredonia, where she studied the ephemeral performance art. She received her M.A. in Critical Museum Studies in May 2018, where she focused on the museum management and wrote her Master's thesis on the ethics of material degradation... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Luisa Casella

Luisa Casella

Photograph Conservator, West Lake Conservators
Luisa has a Masters in conservation from the Instituto Politénico de Tomar, in Portugal. She worked for eight years at Luis Pavão Limitada, serving museums, archives, and cultural institutions. In 2005 Luisa was awarded the Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship of the Advanced Residency Program... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 4:30pm - 5:00pm
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

4:30pm

(Textiles) Practical Applications of Conservation and Restoration Strategies for Historical Clothing in Uncontrolled Historical Houses
Some Egyptian historic houses are now used as museums, many of which are uncontrolled in their environmental conditions, such as Saad Zaghloul house (House of Nation). Which cause undamaged damage to historical clothing. This research deals with the restoration of the dress of Safia Zaghloul (Wife of Saad Zaghloul) as an example of the condition of historical clothing in historical houses. The dress is two parts the first is outer part and the second is an inner jacket of black color (Industrial dye). The dress was made from silk and cotton fabrics. There are many separate parts and lost pieces in the dress. It was observed that the stitching was separated and it contain stain and dirt. A close examination of the historical Cloth was undertaken in order to develop a plan of conservation treatment such as FTIR, XR-D. In addition, light microscope and SEM were used to identify the kind of fibers, their condition and surface morphology. The effects of cleaning materials on the natural dyes were tested. Fixing and support all the separated parts was done before cleaning. Dry cleaning was used to remove resistance stain and dirt. Mannequins are made with standard and free acidity materials. The manicures were lined and then the dress (the inner part - the outer part) was placed. The missing parts have been completed. The method of exhibition will be discussed. Photographs are included to document the conservation process

Speakers
avatar for Prof. Dr. Harby Ezzeldeen Ahmed

Prof. Dr. Harby Ezzeldeen Ahmed

Associate Prof of Historical Textiles Conservation., Cairo University
Prof Dr. Harby E. Ahmed is an Associate Professor of Conservation in the Faculty of Archaeology at Cairo University in Egypt.  Furthermore, he is an H.D Certified Trainer (Faculty and Leadership Development Center). He has more than 27 articles in international journals. Also, he... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 4:30pm - 5:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Architecture + Archaeological Conservation) Keeping it Vertical: Use of GIS to create a streamlined survey and work order system for a historic landscape
Keeping it Vertical: Use of GIS to create a streamlined survey and work order system for a historic landscape Brooklyn’s Green-Wood Cemetery is home to over 200,000 historic monuments and over 7,000 trees throughout its 478 acres. As Green-Wood’s landscape ages and evolves, the need for more technologically advanced collections management software became apparent, a need which resulted in the creation of a unique ArcGIS-based collection management system. In Collector for ArcGIS, management and field crews input survey information such as date, material, dimensions, and conditions of a historic monument or caliper, condition, and taxonomic information of a tree. Managers also create work orders in Collector, which thanks to a first-of-its-kind script which links the two, automates the creation of a work-order in WorkForce for ArcGIS. Work orders are assigned by the Manager, and analytics related to executed work orders and efficiency metrics are reviewed in an Operations Dashboard. The link between Collector and WorkForce allows staff members to geotag work orders to specific trees and monuments while tracking their progress and saving survey information along the way. By utilizing the power of GIS, our software analyzes our landscape’s varied assets simultaneously and streamlines the implementation of the work necessary to maintain those assets, thus offering an enhanced, multi-faceted portrait of Green-Wood. Software such as this could be used across other large historic cemeteries, large archeological sites, city and state park land, throughout museum environments, and scores of other cultural landscapes. This presentation will guide viewers through the inception of the software and its application in the field. Founded in 1838 and now a National Historic Landmark, Green-Wood was one of the first rural cemeteries in America. By the early 1860s, it had earned an international reputation for its magnificent beauty and became the prestigious place to be buried, attracting 500,000 visitors a year, second only to Niagara Falls as the nation’s greatest tourist attraction. Crowds flocked there to enjoy family outings, carriage rides, and sculpture viewing in the finest of first generation American landscapes. Green-Wood’s popularity helped inspire the creation of public parks, including New York City’s Central and Prospect Parks. Green-Wood is 478 spectacular acres of hills, valleys, glacial ponds and paths, throughout which exists one of the largest outdoor collections of 19th- and 20th-century statuary and mausoleums. Four seasons of beauty from century-and-a-half-old trees offer a peaceful oasis to visitors, as well as its 570,000 permanent residents, including Leonard Bernstein, Boss Tweed, Charles Ebbets, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Louis Comfort Tiffany, Horace Greeley, Civil War generals, baseball legends, politicians, artists, entertainers and inventors.

Speakers
avatar for Joseph Charap

Joseph Charap

Director of Horticulture, Green-Wood Cemetery
Joseph Charap is the Director of Horticulture and Curator at Green-Wood Cemetery, in Brooklyn, New York. He graduated from the New York Botanical Garden's School of Professional Horticulture. He is a certified arborist and has a Masters in English Literature from Brooklyn College... Read More →
avatar for Neela K. Wickremesinghe

Neela K. Wickremesinghe

Manager of Restoration and Preservation, Green-Wood Cemetery
Neela K. Wickremesinghe joined the Green-Wood team during fall 2016. Ms. Wickremesinghe holds MS in Historic Preservation from Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation.


Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 5:30pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Book and Paper) Looking Back and Taking Stock – A Journey through Past Projects
Since this year’s AIC’s Annual Meeting theme has been expanded for the Book and Paper Group session to include re-evaluation of materials used in historical conservation treatments, the speaker would like to reflect back on more than 30 years of training and working in the conservation field and publically review some cases that provided great anxiety at the time or give pause upon reflection today. He will in fact review his own – by now – historic conservation treatments. The cases range from unintended immediate physical and chemical modifications, to unexpected long-term changes that have an impact on the use of collection items. The speaker will review a number of conservation treatments and evaluate how they have stood the test of time. He will also recount his experience as a conservation student, damaging a 16th century Albrecht Dürer print during a conservation approach that he has since then no longer used. He will discuss his experience with light bleaching a 19th century drawing by Joseph Keppler, an action that created unanticipated chemical changes in the paper. And he will delve into mechanical paper splitting and the unexpected long-term effects of this technique on 19th century US newspapers. The speaker ends with an observation made using Russell-effect photography and wonders whether the wide-spread use of the mat window as storage container should receive closer scrutiny in case in certain circumstances this type of housing unintentionally creates an environment that will give rise to a higher oxidation rate within the confines of the window.

Speakers
avatar for Elmer Eusman-[Fellow]

Elmer Eusman-[Fellow]

Chief, Conservation Division, Library of Congress
Elmer Eusman received his diploma in book and paper conservation in 1989 from the Dutch National School for Conservation, a four-year program now integrated with the University of Amsterdam. After completing his studies, he completed internships in a private conservation studio in... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 5:30pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Collection Care) Vibration testing and wandering of objects in a natural history collection
Studies on the effects of vibrations on the condition of objects of cultural heritage often focus on paintings or unique objects with particular historical value. However, vibrations are also of concern for large collections of objects which serve as (inter)national reference collections. One such collection is the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, home to the fifth largest natural history collection in the world with over 37 million objects. The storage facilities are physically attached to the museum, offices and laboratories, which are undergoing major renovations. This collection cannot be moved elsewhere, so there are obvious concerns about the effect of vibrations due to heavy construction on the wide variety of objects in the collection. There is virtually no data in the literature on the effect of vibrations on natural history objects. Naturalis and RCE therefore conducted a limited set of vibration tests to obtain an initial impression of what could happen to representative objects under vibration loading. Of particular interest were object resonance, movement on the shelves (“wandering”), and the appearance of damage. The storage situation was simulated by placing objects on typical free-standing metal shelves used in the storage facilities, which were placed unfastened on a commercial vibration testing table. Objects included mounted fauna, small specimen boxes, wood and mineral samples, mounted insects, and bottled biological samples. In order to study the effect of vibrations on the objects alone, they were also tested directly on the vibration table. Testing was conducted at different vibration frequencies and levels. Members of the Naturalis collection care staff visually determined the resonant frequencies and wandering behavior of the objects. The results showed that object vibration behavior depends on a number of factors including their weight, geometry, and mounting, the vibration behavior of the shelves, and characteristics of the object/shelf contact surface. If objects were placed directly on the vibration table, they began to resonate visibly at their resonant frequencies above levels of around 5 mm/s, and began to wander at levels above 20 mm/s. No damage was found for the objects tested for short durations, except for a small loss of particles from a large historical tree branch, and from minerals which lay unpadded on the table. However, vibrations were amplified through the loose standing shelves, reaching levels up to 20 times that of the vibration table itself. This resulted in significant wandering of objects on the shelves, including small specimen boxes falling off of stacks of such boxes. These results indicate that the 2 mm/s low-risk limit suggested by Wei et al (2014) for collections for one construction project would be applicable as a low-risk limit for natural history objects. However, measures would are needed to prevent objects from wandering (see also Smyth et al 2016). Non-reactive padding would help, and would also prevent damage to objects in direct contact with hard shelving materials. Furthermore, monitoring would need to be performed directly on the shelves, as opposed to just on the floor near the shelves.

Speakers
avatar for William Wei

William Wei

Senior Conservation Scientist, Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed
Dr. Wei (1955) is a senior conservation scientist in the Research Department of the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE - Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed). He has a B.S.E. in mechanical engineering from Princeton University (1977) and a Ph.D. in materials science... Read More →

Co-Authors
ED

Esther Dondorp

Collection Manager - Reptiles and Amphibians, Naturalis Biodiversity Center
Ms. Dondorp obtained her Master's of Science in Animal Biology at the University of Leiden in 2010. This included two internships in biology as part of a larger study on the relationship between birds and dinosaurs, where she focused on their common ancestor, the crocodile. The last... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 5:30pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Electronic Media) Time-based Media Art Conservation Education Program at NYU: Concept and Perspectives
In recognition of the emerging field of contemporary art, New York University’s Institute of Fine Arts Conservation Center will expand its course offerings by establishing a specialization explicitly for the conservation of TBM artworks—the first of its kind in this country. This innovative course of studies will require students to cross the disciplinary boundaries of computer science, material science, media technology, engineering, art history, and conservation. The Conservation Center prepares students for careers in technical study and conservation through a four-year graduate program leading to a dual degree – an MA in the History of Art and Archaeology and an MS in the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. The program is committed to maintaining its traditional strengths in paper, books, paintings, and objects conservation, while adding TBM as a new specialization. During the curriculum planning phase from 2016-2017, the core competencies and skill sets for future TBM conservators were identified based on meetings with experts from European programs and potential employers and practitioners in the U.S. The learning objectives have been organized to fit into the most suitable teaching formats and built around the best possible time line for acquiring specific skills. As with other specialties within conservation, the core competencies of future TBM conservators are grounded in conservation ethics, conservation methodologies, and conservation science. The conceptual framework of modern and contemporary art conservation alongside modern and contemporary art history and media theory will provide the basis early in the student’s education. Building on that foundation, specifically designed courses will cover topics such as electrics / electronics, computer science / programming, audio / video technology, digital preservation, and photo-chemical processes to develop a solid knowledge of each TBM media category, such as film, slide, video, audio, software, performance, light, kinetic, or internet art. Furthermore, the equipment associated with each media, the signal processing and characteristics of different display and playback devices, needs to be understood in context to assess the visual and aural integrity of a TBM artwork. In addition to the technical competencies, communication skills and the ability to create a network of experts are equally important. To gain physical and intellectual ownership of an artwork, future TBM conservation students will learn and practice how to identify the work-defining properties of an artwork and to understand and document all components in context, which requires close communication with all stakeholders involved. Students will learn how to draw a preservation plan for a TBM collection, which will translate into the general skills needed to promote advocacy for TBM works in an institution, to build and grow a lab, and to establish workflows. This presentation will outline the major steps planned for the education of future TBM art conservators and how this program will augment the body of knowledge in response to the needs of a rapidly growing art conservation discipline. The inaugural class will be launched in the fall of 2018. The development of the TBM art conservation curriculum has been generously supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Speakers
avatar for Christine Frohnert

Christine Frohnert

Conservator, Bek & Frohnert LLC
Christine Frohnert completed her training as painting and sculpture conservator in 1993, joined the Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany, and held the position of Chief Conservator from 2000 – 2005. She holds a graduate degree in the Conservation of Modern Materials and Media from the... Read More →
avatar for Hannelore Roemich

Hannelore Roemich

Scientist/Researcher, NYU Institute of Fine Arts, Conservation Center
Dr. Hannelore Roemich (PhD in Chemistry 1987, University in Heidelberg, Germany; Diploma in Chemistry 1984, University Dortmund, Germany) is Professor of Conservation Science to the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University (NYU) since January 2007. Dr. Roemich offers instruction... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 5:30pm
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Objects) Conditioning Basketry Elements with Water and Ethanol: An Investigation into the Effects of Standard Conservation Methods
Humidification or conditioning of baskets to effect realignment or re-shaping is a standard conservation treatment performed wherever these collections are held. We know that baskets are particularly prone to damage caused by the alternate swelling and shrinking of fibers due to fluctuations in relative humidity. At the same time, this sensitivity has long been used in the conservator’s favor. The chemical composition of cellulose, specifically its ability to form hydrogen bonds, allows for both water and polar solvents to plasticize dried plant tissue. While humidification (or conditioning when using solvents) has become a standard conservation procedure, its effects on material properties have remained only theoretically evaluated rather than through a material study. In fact, untested concerns have been raised over microbial growth, and also the potential for irreversible swelling of the basketry elements. As a result, polar solvents – for example ethanol – have been added to or become a preferred conditioning media instead water. The research for this thesis project, conducted at the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program, revolved around designing an experiment to track the extent of swelling and subsequent recovery of basketry samples treated with water and ethanol vapor. These samples represent two plant species, willow (Salix spp.) and spruce root (Picea spp.), one deciduous and the other coniferous, which occur with some frequency in the basketry traditions of the western United States and Canada. The extent of swelling before and after the conditioning process between all the samples was compared, using measurements taken with a Keyence digital microscope. Pure water, pure ethanol, and three mixtures of the two at different proportions, were each evaluated for consequent dimensional changes occurring before, during, and after conditioning to the same relative humidity as is typically used in conservation treatments. The results of this study not only corroborate information from fields as diverse as conservation, forestry science and material science, but also point towards clear trends which can inform the conservator’s decision-making in planning humidification/conditioning treatments of basketry. By performing a material study, we are able to provide clearer guidelines about the effects of different conditioning solutions.

Speakers
avatar for Hayley Monroe

Hayley Monroe

Master's Student, UCLA/Getty Program for the Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials
Hayley Monroe is a third year student in the UCLA/Getty Master’s Program in the Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials. She graduated from Mount Holyoke College with a BA in Classics. She gained field experience in the conservation of ceramics, metals, glass and... Read More →
avatar for Ellen Pearlstein

Ellen Pearlstein

Conservator, UCLA/Getty Master’s Program in the Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials
Ellen Pearlstein is a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles in both Information Studies, and is a founding faculty member in the UCLA/Getty Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation. Her research interests include American Indian tribal museums and how... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 5:30pm
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Paintings) Evolon: Its Use from a Scientific and Practical Conservation Perspective
In recent years, Evolon®CR, made of a highly absorbent polyester/ polyamide microfilament fabric, has started to be used by many conservators for the removal of varnish layers on paintings. Its potential for controlled solvent application and dramatic reduction of mechanical action is particularly appealing. Moreover, it is especially suited for large-scale paintings. Several case studies about the use of Evolon®CR have been published, but up until now as far as we know, no in-depth scientific study into the behavior of Evolon®CR with solvents for conservation applications has been carried out. In this presentation preliminary results of testing of Evolon®CR will be presented. Moreover, a novel procedure for loading Evolon®CR with solvent for varnish removal will be demonstrated and an illustration given of how physical and visual documentation of varnish removal from the used sheets provide much data for further research on the removed materials using MA-XRF or GCMS.
 
In order to understand how Evolon®CR holds up in solvents, solvent extractions were analysed with Py-GC/MS. No extractables could be determined, however, micro and possible nano-scale-fibers (polyamide (nylon-6) and polyester) were found. From preliminary results of diffusion tests using a mock-up it appears that a fully saturated 'Evolon tissue'  first releases  solvent into the painting after which it reabsorbs it, together with available extractable components in the varnish/ paint (free fatty acids). The rate and depth of diffusion is dependent on the solvent used. This result was shown to be similar??identical to varnish removal using cotton swabs, but has the benefit that no mechanical action is involved.
 
After extensive testing, conservators at Restauratieatelier Amsterdam, developed a simple, but highly effective system of loading the Evolon®CR with specific amounts of solvent. This ensures that only the amount of solvent needed to swell and remove the varnish layer(s) is administered to the painting and that every part of the painting receives exactly the same amount of solvent. After timed trials with small strips of Evolon®CR using varying solvents on various parts of a painting, the most effective solvent at the least concentration for the least amount of time can be determined. The varnish removal can proceed with larger sheets.
During varnish removal, the location of the sheets on a painting can be documented. After evaporation of the solvent, the sheets of Evolon®CR can be scanned at high resolution and stitched to form a mosaic of Evolon®CR corresponding to the painting. Remarkably, areas of thicker varnish, retouching and fine details, such as the crack pattern of the paint can be observed in the used sheets. In order to get a better understanding the used sheets were scanned with a Bruker macro-XRF scanner. These results, along with those of other tests will be presented.
It can be concluded, that although further research is warranted, the application of solvent using the above method and Evolon®CR  makes varnish removal more efficient and controlled in comparison with varnish removal with swabs. Moreover, the used sheets of Evolon®CR provide an invaluable record of the removed varnish and retouching.

Speakers
avatar for Susan Smelt

Susan Smelt

Junior Paintings Conservator, Rijksmuseum
Susan Smelt is a junior paintings conservator at the Rijksmuseum. She graduated in 2012 from the University of Amsterdam with an MA and Professional Doctorate in Conservation and Restoration of Paintings. During the two-year postinitial phase she worked at the Stichting Restauratie... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Robert Erdmann

Robert Erdmann

Senior Research Scientist, Rijksmuseum
With the latest techniques in the field of computer vision, machine learning, image processing, materials science and visualization theory Erdmann works to preserve, understand and make accessible visual artistic heritage. He is currently a Senior Scientist at the Rijksmuseum. Also... Read More →
avatar for Henk van Keulen

Henk van Keulen

Specialist Conservation and Restoration, Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands
avatar for Katrien Keune

Katrien Keune

research scientist/associate professor, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam/University of Amsterdam
Katrien Keune is research scientist at the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Netherlands. She also holds an appointment as Associate Professor of Chemistry at the University of Amsterdam (UvA) and contributes to the Netherlands Institute for Conservation, Art and Science (NICAS) at a scientific... Read More →
avatar for Kathrin Kirsch

Kathrin Kirsch

Conservator of paintings and modern artworks, Restauratieatelier Amsterdam
Kathrin completed her degree at the University of Applied Sciences in Cologne in 2000, specializing in the restoration of paintings and sculpture. During her 5-year program, she completed a six-month internship at SKRA in 1997 (Stichting Kollektief Restauratieatelier Amsterdam) in... Read More →
avatar for Petria Noble

Petria Noble

Head of Paintings Conservation, Rijksmuseum
As Head of Paintings Conservation at the Rijksmuseum since 2014, Petria has expanded the department, laying more emphasis on research into the materials and techniques of artists' as well as those of conservation. Originally from Australia, Petria Noble carried out her post-graduate... Read More →
avatar for Andreas Siejek

Andreas Siejek

Painting Conservator, Restauratieatelier Amsterdam
Andreas Siejek is net als zijn collega Kathrin Kirsch afgestudeerd aan de University of Applied Sciences in Keulen als Diplom-restaurator voor schilderijen en geploychromeerde sculptuur. Andreas heeft jarenlange ervaring als zelfstandig restaurator. Hij werkte voor onder meer het... Read More →
avatar for Saskia Smulders

Saskia Smulders

Conservation Scientist, Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed
Saskia Smulders - de Jong is a conservation scientist at the Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed (Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands). After 7 years working as a biochemical and pathological laboratory analyst, Saskia Smulders - de Jong completed a Master's degree in Conservation... Read More →
avatar for Gwen Tauber

Gwen Tauber

Senior Paintings Conservator, Rijksmuseum
Gwen Tauber has been a painting conservator in the Rijks Museum since 1990 and is primarily concerned with the treatment of paintings, their examination and treatment documentation. She works in the midst of an interdisciplinary team comprised of conservators, scientists and curators... Read More →

Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 5:30pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Photographic Materials) How to Receive and Organize a Collection of 1 Million Photographs at Once? Material and Metadata Discussions
All over the world for decades, newspapers and journalist groups have formed huge collections of photographs and clippings. This presentation aims to analyze the strategies used and projected to describe the photographic collection of the Jornal do Commercio (Comercy newspaper). When this newspaper was closed in 2016 it has been the longest paper in activity in South America; in the same year, Instituto Moreira Salles, a cultural institute that stores documental collections, bought the collection of photographs that was gathered by this newspaper. Over 70 years the newspaper collected around 1 million photographs, 700,000 photos, and 300,000 negatives, most of them about Brazil. These pictures were stored in file folders that received a thematic title in order to organize the photos in series. Much information about the pictures was registered on the back part; it’s possible to identify information such as date, place, photographer, newspaper where it was published and sometimes the full article. In order to catalog this collection, from the hugest series to each photograph, it was necessary to identify ways to transcript all the available data. The 1 million photographs were kept in around 1900 boxes; each of them contained 2 to 120 cardboard files; in the top of these files there is a title that informs which kind of pictures are in the files. In the original organization the collection was divided in two huge series, subjects and personalities; those series were divided into thousands of smaller series. The first tool used was a penscanner that can scan digitized texts and apply OCR, but this scanner wasn’t useful and precise in the old cardboard files, because there was no contrast. This pen only has good results in white paper. Then the team started to use a voice recognition software available in any Macintosh operational system. This software, used in Portuguese, reached high levels of precision and helped to make the process of description of the series very quickly. This software couldn’t be used in the personality series, because it only works in one kind of idiom, so the team is taking pictures of the cardboard files in order to apply OCR. The digital capture of useful informations for cataloguing and to describe this collection is a strategy to register the documents of the collection in a fast and accurate way. It’s also a conservation initiative, because it avoids information and documents disassociation. This set of actions have an important role to insert the cataloguing data in international standard like Dublin Core, Lido and ISAD(G). In addition discussions related to thesaurus, folksonomy and automatic indexing are equally relevant for this works and strategical group of actions. 

Speakers
avatar for Rodrigo Bozzetti

Rodrigo Bozzetti

Registrar / Historian, Instituto Moreira Salles
Graduated in Library Science in 2012, by the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro state. Master degree in Information Science in 2016 by the Brazilian Institute of Information in science and Technology, where I developed an epistemological study about the concept of document. Since... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 5:30pm
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

5:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies + Textiles) Roundtable Discussion
When TSG and RATS began planning a joint session for the 2018 annual meeting, we met with some resistance because AIC records suggested that there were no individuals who were members of both specialty groups.  We've learned since that this is both not true (two of our panelists are members of both) and it's definitely not the case that no one in TSG is doing research, nor because no conservation scientists are interested in textiles. But how can we increase the interactions and strengthen ties between our two groups? 

In this panel discussion you will hear from a conservator in a major museum, a current professor, a retired professor and a conservator in private practice. Each will bring a different approach to this topic and offer advice and anecdotes on how they bridge the gap between research and textiles in their profession. Topics of discussion will include: what makes for a good and successful research project? Do all projects have to involve big questions and fancy scientific equipment?  How can keeping an open mind, and questioning assumptions lead to new discoveries?   What makes projects work?  What makes projects not work?  We hope that this panel will help our communities forge connections, learn from successes and failures and encourage each other.  Audience participation in the form of an open question and answer session will follow.
Panelists:
  • Dr. Margaret Ordoñez, Professor Emerita, Textiles, Fashion Merchandising, and Design, University of Rhode Island; Conservator, Ordoñez Textile Conservation Services, Camden, TN
  • Mary W. Ballard, Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Senior Textiles Conservator, Suitland, Maryland
  • Gwen Spicer, Spicer Art Conservation, LLC
  • Dr. Nancy Odegaard, Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

Speakers
avatar for Mary W. Ballard

Mary W. Ballard

Conservator, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
EducationB.A. Wellesley (1971)M.A. and Diploma in Conservation New York University Institute of Fine Arts (1979)Additional coursework: North Carolina State University, College of TextilesResearch Specialties and InterestsInterested in coloration of textiles and in the evidence of... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, University of Arizona
Nancy Odegaard is the Head of the Preservation Division at the Arizona State Museum on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson where she is also a professor with the Department of Material Science & Engineering, the School of Anthropology, and the Drachman Institute (historic... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Margaret T. Ordoñez

Dr. Margaret T. Ordoñez

Scientist/Researcher, Ordoñez Textile Conservation Services
Taught textile conservation classes in the graduate programs at Kansas State University and the University of Rhode Island; retired from URI in 2017 and set up Tenasi Textile Conservation Services in Tennessee. MS and PhD in textiles and clothing departments at the University of Tennessee... Read More →
avatar for Gwen Spicer-[Fellow]

Gwen Spicer-[Fellow]

Conservator, Spicer Art Conservation, LLC
Gwen Spicer is a Textile, Upholstery, Paper, and Objects Conservator, and full-time principal of Spicer Art Conservation, LLC, conveniently located in upstate New York. She received her Master’s degree from the Art Conservation Program at Buffalo State College, State University... Read More →


Thursday May 31, 2018 5:00pm - 6:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston
 
Friday, June 1
 

8:30am

(Architecture) The development of modern organic materials, 1845-1930
Up to the middle of the nineteenth century, the “liquid-to-solid” organic materials that serve as architectural paints, coatings and adhesives represented the chemistry of natural products. The sources of raw materials were varied, including drying oils, tree resins, and animal and fish glues, but commercial users wanted products with greater ease of use, and better (and more consistent) performance. The earliest of these improved materials involved relatively simple modification of natural products, with industrial-scale experimentation giving us vulcanized rubber and cellulose nitrate. Improvements in the production of coal and oil distillates, and in the structural study of organic molecules, led to the first generation of phenolic resins and butadiene rubber in the early twentieth century. By 1930, many familiar materials—such as alkyd resins, PVC and Nylon 66—were starting to enter the marketplace. They set the stage for a broader revolution in polymer science that dramatically changed the work of architects, engineers and builders in the decades that followed.

Speakers
avatar for Norman Weiss

Norman Weiss

Conservator, Integrated Conservation Resources, Inc.
Norman R. Weiss is the Director of Scientific Research at Integrated Conservation Resources, Inc. As ICR’s Director of Scientific Research, Norman Weiss draws on more than thirty five years of practical experience in architectural conservation, to provide technical support to our... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 8:30am - 9:00am
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

8:30am

(Book and Paper) Small but bulky: a study on the rebinding of a portable 15th century book of hours
Book conservation treatment rarely calls for the full rebinding of a book. Where possible, conservators preserve the material nature of a book by keeping its original components and performing minimal intervention. At times, more interventive treatments are necessary to prepare the book for safe handling. HRC 10, a 15th-century Flemish book of hours from the Ransom Center’s Medieval and Early Modern Manuscripts Collection, presents a case-study where rebinding became essential, allowing an in-depth examination into combinations of different binding components suitable for small, bulky manuscript formats. Prior to treatment at the Ransom Center, HRC 10 was in a 19th-century stiff board, laced-in binding sewn on recessed cords. While the manuscript is small enough to fit into the palm of a user’s hands, its 226-folio text block makes the volume very thick. The opening of the volume’s parchment leaves was restricted by the binding and the text block’s heavily lined spine. To access the book’s contents, users had to exert pressure to open the text block, often with their fingers touching the fragile illuminations and writing that is close to the edges of the pages. As the manuscript is often studied for its illuminations, curators and conservators determined that treatment was necessary to increase the openability of the text block. Multiple conservators worked on HRC 10 over the course of its treatment, and the treatment plan changed greatly from its initial development to completion. When a decision to resew and rebind a text block is made, conservators usually attempt to create a new binding structure that is sympathetic to the period of the text block. For HRC 10, this would have meant resewing on raised supports. While this is a strong sewing structure, it is not optimal for small, bulky text blocks, where the sewing supports tend to restrict the movement of the spine. Resewing HRC 10 in such a structure were therefore not successful in increasing the openability of the volume. Several models with various sewing structures were made to determine the best structure for HRC 10, using different combinations of components such as sewing style, sewing support materials, lining materials and methods of attachment, and endbands. An unsupported link stitch, similar to the sewing used for earlier Byzantine and Coptic bindings, was finally selected. It greatly improved the openability. The binding was then covered in an alum-tawed skin, a conservationally-sound material. The treatment project of HRC 10 presented an opportunity to trace the thought-process of different conservators throughout the treatment of one manuscript, culminating in an in-depth examination of the structural complications of working with small, bulky text blocks to provide a satisfactory treatment solution.

Speakers
avatar for Kimberly Kwan

Kimberly Kwan

Bollinger Conservation Fellow, Harry Ransom Center
Kimberly Kwan is the Bollinger Conservation Fellow, Book Lab at the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin. She received her MA in Conservation at Camberwell College of Arts, London, UK with a specialization in books and archival materials. Prior to working at the Ransom... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 8:30am - 9:00am
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

8:30am

(Objects + Archaeological Conservation) Facial Reconstruction of Ancient Egyptian Mummies: Experiences from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum
Poised at the intersection of science and art, the field of facial reconstruction offers an unprecedented way to approach the ancient dead as human beings who “look like us.” This paper discusses issues precipitated by the digital reconstruction of the faces of two ancient Egyptians stewarded by the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum, and considers how new scientific technologies as well as ethical concerns complicate attempts to render human remains more recognizably human. The interdisciplinary nature of this project required developing a new framework for respectful practices for the preservation and presentation of human remains, particularly as there were many perspectives involved; in the case of this research, this included the combined expertise and insights of forensic artists and anthropologists, a facial prosthetist, radiologists, biomedical engineers, digital imaging specialists, Egyptologists, graduate and undergraduate students, as well as an art conservator. Focusing on two ancient Egyptian individuals who have been closely associated with the history of Baltimore, and Johns Hopkins University, its hospital and its Archaeological Museum since the early twentieth century, this paper highlights the many unexpected types of documentation that were required to more fully understand the “object biographies” of these two individuals. From their acquisitions to early autopsies, to past conservation treatments, recent computed tomography scanning and digital reconstruction as well as multi-band imaging of associated objects, the kinds of data, and expertise required to decode these new kinds of data, has raised questions about how we affect a more holistic stewardship of human remains. The paper will also consider how the final digital depictions were contextualized and interpreted for a broader audience through student documentation and student-designed public programming in order to invite the museum visitor and the public to have a role in ensuring a respectful stewardship of the people of the past.

Speakers
avatar for Sanchita Balachandran-[Fellow]

Sanchita Balachandran-[Fellow]

Associate Director, Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum, The Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum
Sanchita Balachandran is Associate Director of the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum and Senior Lecturer in the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD. She teaches courses related to the technical study and analysis of ancient objects, as... Read More →

Co-Authors
JG

Juan Garcia

Student, Ridgely Middle School
avatar for Mark Roughley

Mark Roughley

Research and Teaching Assistant, Liverpool John Moores University
Mark is a trained Medical Artist and his 3D modelling, CGI texturing and animation skills, alongside knowledge of CT data reconstruction practice, 3D scanning and 3D printing are used to aid in Craniofacial Reconstruction and for presentation to public audiences.
avatar for Kathryn Smith

Kathryn Smith

PhD researcher, Face Lab
Craniofacial identification and depiction (forensic and archaeological) | visual art and curatorship | Ethics of display
avatar for Meg Swaney

Meg Swaney

PhD Student, Egyptian Art & Archaeology, Johns Hopkins University
Meg Swaney is a PhD student in Egyptian Art & Archaeology and a Graduate Student Museum Supervisor at the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum. She she does osteological work at the JHU Mut Temple expedition, and her dissertation focuses on the art history of the temple of Ptolemy... Read More →
avatar for Caroline Wilkinson

Caroline Wilkinson

Director, Liverpool School of Art & Design
Craniofacial identification and forensic art

Friday June 1, 2018 8:30am - 9:00am
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

8:30am

(Paintings) The Blues of Jan de Bray's Judith and Holofernes: the technical study of two blue pigments and its impact on treatment
This paper will present the examination, analysis, and treatment of a seventeenth-century oil on panel painting in the collection of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. The painting depicts Judith and Holofernes and was painted in 1659 by Jan de Bray, a Haarlem-based history and portrait painter. The painting was brought to the conservation department for examination and treatment in the summer of 2016. Although initial stages of the treatment were straightforward, the removal of many layers of discolored natural resin varnish revealed an unusual and confusing pattern of damage in the blue area of the bedspread. Extensive abrasions, some round and ring-shaped, were visible with the naked eye, and the presence of microscopic islands of whitish material suggested that either pigment discoloration or undesirable pigment-binder interactions had occurred. To more fully understand the damage and alterations, the blue area was subjected to intensive study. Non-invasive analytical and imaging techniques, in addition to micro-sample analysis, were employed, including infrared reflectography (IRR), Hirox digital microphotography, micro Reflectance Transformation Imaging (micro-RTI), cross-sectional analysis, macro X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (MA-XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-BSE/EDS), Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array (UHPLC-PDA), and portable micro-Raman spectroscopy (pRaman) and X-Ray Diffractometry (pXRD). Two different blue pigments were identified: indigo was used in the first blue layer of the bedspread with lapis lazuli glazed on top. The whitish islands were characterized as lapis lazuli that were apparently degraded in the past. The authors propose a possible mechanism for the degradation of the lapis lazuli based on SEM-EDS data showing reduced levels of sulfur in the degraded areas. These data are then correlated with observations of the painting’s condition as well as with another recent publication of a painting by Hieronymus Bosch (Genbrugge 2016). Another significant finding includes the presence of alum in the indigo, which may explain the light blue fluorescence of the dark blue indigo paint under UV illumination. Consultation of contemporary source material provides additional context for the use of ultramarine and indigo pigments in seventeenth-century Dutch paintings. Ultimately, a more complete understanding of the materials present in the blue area and the ways in which later alterations to these pigments have affected the overall appearance of the painting informed the inpainting stage of treatment. This treatment step is discussed in light of these findings.

Speakers
avatar for Gerrit Albertson

Gerrit Albertson

Conservator, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fairchild Center for Paintings Conservation
Gerrit Albertson is currently the Annette de la Renta Fellow in Paintings Conservation at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, working under the supervision of Michael Gallagher and Dorothy Mahon. A 2017 graduate from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr. Yoshinari Abe

Dr. Yoshinari Abe

Lector, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science
Dr. Yoshinari Abe is Lector of analytical and inorganic chemistry at Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science. He received a Ph. D. degree in chemistry from Tokyo University of Science in 2012 for studies in scientific investigation of blue colorants and pigments... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Art Proaño Gaibor

Dr. Art Proaño Gaibor

Materials Scientist - Specialist in Conservation and Restoration, Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE)
Art Proaño Gaibor is a Specialist in Conservation and Restoration at the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands since 2017. He has a degree from the ROC chemistry school of Amsterdam since 2008. He is specialized in the analysis of organic colorants in textiles, synthetic colorants... Read More →
avatar for Anna Krekeler

Anna Krekeler

Paintings Conservator, Rijksmuseum
Anna Krekeler was trained as a paintings conservator at the University of Fine Arts in Dresden, Germany. Since her graduation in 2007, she has been working in the Rijksmuseum’s Painting Conservation Studio. Her main research interest is in the techniques and materials of artists... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Annelies van Loon

Dr. Annelies van Loon

Paintings Research Scientist, Rijksmuseum
Annelies van Loon is a paintings research scientist both at the Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam) and the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis (The Hague). She received a master’s degree in chemistry, a post-doctoral diploma in the conservation of easel paintings from the Limburg Conservation... Read More →
avatar for Petria Noble

Petria Noble

Head of Paintings Conservation, Rijksmuseum
As Head of Paintings Conservation at the Rijksmuseum since 2014, Petria has expanded the department, laying more emphasis on research into the materials and techniques of artists' as well as those of conservation. Originally from Australia, Petria Noble carried out her post-graduate... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 8:30am - 9:00am
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston
  • Specialty Tracks Paintings
  • Cost Type Included with registration
  • Abstract ID 13355
  • Authors (in order) Gerrit Albertson, Anna Krekeler, Dr. Annelies van Loon, Dr. Art Proaño Gaibor, Dr. Yoshinari Abe

8:30am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) All that Glitters: Visualizing and Characterizing Gold Leaf through Macro-XRF Scanning
The application of gold leaf is ubiquitous in late medieval painting, but our knowledge of how it was applied is based largely on historical treatises and modern practice. Analytical techniques traditionally applied to the study of historic works of art, such as X-radiography and point-analysis x-ray fluorescence (XRF), identify only the presence and elemental composition of the metal leaf at a single point, respectively. MA-XRF scanning has opened up a new avenue of research into the study of gilding materials and techniques by providing unprecedented new insight into visualizing the dimensions of individual gold leaves, differences in how the leaf was applied by various artists and workshops, and the variability of gold leaf alloy compositions available. In addition to elucidating the original artistic creative process, MA-XRF can identify and map restoration interventions using gold leaf, thereby providing new documentation of historic conservation or restoration efforts. Statistical measurement of the dimensions of individual gold leaves provides a new tool for supporting or refuting links between separated components of altarpieces. This poster presents the results of studies from a number of paintings and manuscript illuminations that demonstrate the ability of MA-XRF to elucidate new information about the composition of metal leaf, its application, and its past conservation.

Speakers
avatar for Douglas MacLennan

Douglas MacLennan

Research Lab Associate, Getty Conservation Institute
Douglas MacLennan joined the Technical Studies research laboratory at the Getty Conservation Institute in 2016. His work focuses on the technical examination of works of art in collaboration with both conservators and curators. His research interests include the use of XRF and multispectral... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Nathan Daly

Nathan Daly

Postdoctoral Fellow, Getty Conservation Institute
avatar for Arlen Heginbotham

Arlen Heginbotham

Conservator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture, J. Paul Getty Museum
Arlen Heginbotham received his A.B. in East Asian Studies from Stanford University and his M.A. in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College. He is currently Conservator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture at the J. Paul Getty Museum. Arlen’s research interests include the history... Read More →
avatar for Lynn Lee

Lynn Lee

Assistant Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Lynn Lee received her PhD in physical chemistry from the University of California Berkeley. Her current areas of research include the study of traditional—especially those used in antiquities—and modern artist materials and techniques using non- or minimally invasive analytical... Read More →
avatar for Catherine Schmidt Patterson

Catherine Schmidt Patterson

Associate Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Catherine Schmidt Patterson received her PhD in physical chemistry at Northwestern University. Her primary areas of research are the use of non- or minimally invasive techniques such as Raman microspectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, technical imaging to study works of art... Read More →
avatar for Yvonne Szafran

Yvonne Szafran

Senior Conservator, J Paul Getty Museum
avatar for Karen Trentelman

Karen Trentelman

Senior Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Karen Trentelman is head of Technical Studies research, which focuses on the scientific study of works of art to further the understanding and preservation of these works in collaboration with conservators and curators. Current areas of interest include: revealing hidden layers in paintings and manuscripts using noninvasive spectro... Read More →
avatar for Nancy Turner

Nancy Turner

Conservator, J. Paul Getty Museum

Friday June 1, 2018 8:30am - 9:00am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

8:30am

(Textiles) A Lot of Nitpicking; Documentation of Tom Welter’s painted silk battle flag encapsulation method and materials.
Reconsidering the history of conservation is not solely about how things have been treated. Instead, by examining the decision-making process, which forms and informs future conservation treatments, we can gain context to fully understand and assess previous work. Tom Welter began to develop a method to encapsulate fragile silk battle flags in 1964 after a 3 day tutorial with conservator Katherine Scott. While Welter was very talented as an artist and mechanic he had no prior experience in textile conservation. The encapsulation treatment he developed, while invasive by today’s standard, was performed on more than 200 painted silk battle flags throughout the country. Innovative in application Welter’s ultimate goal of treatment was not just to consolidate but to make the flags available for use. Within this paper, a detailed documentation of the procedure developed by Welter will be revealed. Materials such as surfactants and adhesives will be identified. All information documenting the treatment procedure will be based on; Welter’s personal journal entries, written treatment documentation, physical evidence, and an oral history provided by his daughter Nancy Cyr. It is hoped that by documenting Welter’s encapsulation method, conservators and curators will be better informed to preserve these fragile silk battle flags.

Speakers
avatar for Ann Frisina

Ann Frisina

Conservator, Minnesota Historical Society
Ann Frisina began her career at the Textile Conservation Workshop in 1989 where she spent three years under the guidance of Senior Conservator, Karen Clark. While at T.C.W. her work focused on flat 2-dimensional textiles ranging in sizes from small samplers, to larger quilts. Moving... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 8:30am - 9:00am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

8:30am

(Collection Care) Materials Selection for Storage, Exhibit, & Transport: A Moderated Panel Discussion
It is an acknowledged truth in the field of preventive conservation that materials selected for storage, exhibit, and transport of collections play a critical role in the long-term preservation of these same collections. The wrong materials—those selected without careful consideration or those selected based on flawed assumptions (e.g. one batch of material varies in composition from another)—can impact the overall stability of collections, promote damage to collection items, or result in material failure. Selecting an appropriate material can be fraught with challenges: What are the specific properties necessary for the task? How can these properties be evaluated to relate to material performance and overall task compatibility? How can communication with industry result in a supply of consistent material? Nevertheless, collection care professionals must regularly select materials for purpose amid these challenges, which can leave the professional feeling like their best efforts still rely on guesswork, qualitative evaluation, and inconsistent results. 
To begin unraveling this complex issue and begin developing solutions, a working group (Materials for Collection Care Working Group) consisting of the various stakeholders engaged in material development, testing, and selection is underway. This group is currently engaged in identifying the current challenges with materials selection and evaluation and more clearly defining the stakeholders and their roles. From there, the group will develop a resource for advancing the community’s ability to take a more educated role in material development, selection, evaluation, and use. 
A moderated panel focused on improving awareness of materials, their components, and the testing required for their use in collection care will consist of: 
1. A Standards professional representing an organization that develops community-tested standards, such as ASTM. This person will address how standards are developed, resources needed for their development, and community expectations: Michael Skalka, National Gallery of Art and ASTM Chairman of DOI.57 Artist Materials
2. A Conservation Scientist to present the complexities of material testing: Eric Breitung, The Metropolitan Museum of Art 
3. A Conservator experienced in developing specifications for products: Andrew Robb, Library of Congress 
4. A Supplier discussing the challenges of working with manufacturers and consistency of materials: John Dunphy, University Products 
5. An Exhibit Designer discussing the challenges of working with collection care professionals and materials suppliers and manufacturers to develop in-budget exhibitions with a collection care priority: Tomomi Itakura, Fine Art Museums of San Francisco 
Through presentations and moderated discussions, continuing steps for the working group will be identified and prioritized. Each panelist will be given 10 minutes to speak, followed by 30 minutes for guided discussion and questions. 

Moderators
avatar for Pamela Hatchfield

Pamela Hatchfield

Conservator, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Pamela Hatchfield is the Robert P. and Carol T. Henderson Head of Objects Conservation at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. She received her Master’s degree in Art History and Certificate in Conservation from the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University, with an advanced level... Read More →
avatar for Catharine Hawks

Catharine Hawks

Collections Program Conservator, Smithsonian Institution/National Museum of Natural History
Catharine Hawks is an objects conservator with a focus on natural history collections. Before becoming the museum conservator for the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), she was in private practice for 20 years, working with over 100 institutional clients in... Read More →

Speakers
avatar for Eric Breitung

Eric Breitung

Research Scientist, Department of Scientific Research, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Eric Breitung, Research Scientist, specializes in modern preservation materials and museum environment issues in the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Department of Scientific Research. His work includes the development of advanced analytical test methods for assessing commercial materials... Read More →
avatar for University Products

University Products

Supplier/Service Provider, University Products
University Products is the leading international supplier of conservation tools and equipment, as well as archival storage products. The company distributes products directly to dozens of countries around the world as well as through our many partners throughout Europe, Asia, South... Read More →
avatar for Andrew Robb

Andrew Robb

Special Projects Officer, Library of Congress
avatar for Michael Skalka

Michael Skalka

Conservation Administrator, National Gallery of Art
B.A., Art History, Rutgers University M.F.A. in Museum Studies, Syracuse University Conservation Administrator at the National Gallery of Art. 1984 to present. Responsible for overseeing daily financial administrative operations of the conservation division. Serves as the coordinator... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 8:30am - 10:00am
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Architecture) Life after Lead Paint for Historic Houses
For centuries, lead based paints have been the primary paints used on external woodwork on historic houses. However, recent changes in legislation related to VOCs (volatile organic components) and the restriction of the use of lead paint due to toxicity has meant that paint formulations have changed to meet the changing legislation requirements. In addition, there has been a growing interest in the use of "environmentally friendly" paints. For historic houses, the cyclical maintenance requirements of repainting external woodwork is a major financial consideration and as result, the need to assess the performance of the wide variety of paints available encouraged the National Trust to undertake a series of paint trials to assess sustainability as well as consideration of the visual appearance of the paint (a factor which is important in maintaining the historic appearance of our properties). In 2006, the National Trust began a series of external paint trials on 13 garage doors on one of our properties to assess the performance of the selected paints. The trials provided information about the sustainability of the paints based on visual evidence of cracking, flaking, color change and moisture penetration. Whilst informative, it was realized that the results could not provide a recognized methodology for comparing the paints' performance. As a result, a group of heritage organizations led by the National Trust decided in 2011 to conduct a series of trials at the Paint Research Association in order to provide an industry recognized standard testing procedure to assess 34 paints which were selected on the basis of those used by the members of the group as well those which were commercially available to ensure that they would still be available after the conclusion of the trials. In addition, a number of "environmentally friendly" paints were included to assess their performance. The trials began in 2012 and after four years of testing, the results enabled the group to evaluate the performance of the paints and select 10 paints which performed above average as well as a linseed based paint, a lead based paint and a ICP (internal comparison product used as a standard) to be used to coat a number of the original panels to assess their performance. It was felt that this test would reflect more accurately the method of repainting used on historic properties where the underlying paint layer is simply sanded to remove defects and then coated with a new paint layer. It would also provide information about the sustainability of applying a different paint system over an existing paint layer. This paper explains the procedures involved and the results to date which should provide guidance for historic properties to ensure that the most sustainable paint systems are applied to external wood work.

Speakers
avatar for Christine Leback Sitwell

Christine Leback Sitwell

Paintings Conservation Adviser, National Trust
Christine Sitwell received a Master of Science in Art Conservation from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Museum in the United States. Subsequently she was awarded a Smithsonian fellowship for an internship in the conservation department at the Tate Gallery, London. In 1990 she... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Book and Paper) Branded by Fire: Treatment of los Primeros Libros
The Texas A&M University Libraries collections contains twenty examples of volumes designated as "primeros libros" and form the basis of international collaboration of nearly thirty institutions to build a digital humanities collections of these volumes available for research (http://www.primeroslibros.org). These Texas A&M University volumes are previously untreated at the libraries and several are in need of intense conservation treatment to bring them back as functional research tools. This presentation will review the unique characteristics of volumes of primeros libros selected for conservation, such as the marcas de fuegos (burned in brand) that is on several foredges of the books, and how those characteristics informed the treatment decisions while preserving the significance as unique artifacts.

Item Background: “Primeros libros” are books first printed in the Americas from approximately 1539 to 1605 in colonial Mexico and Peru. They are part of the Colonial Mexican Collection, which contains thousands of works either produced in Mexico or European imprints concerning Mexico during the Age of Exploration, Colonial, and early National periods and is a significant collecting area for the library as well as resource for the scholarly community in this area. The collection offers a significant number of examples of Mexican colonial bindings, woodcuts, illustrations, illuminated and decorated manuscripts, types, publishers, marginalia, and other information.

Speakers
avatar for Jeanne Goodman

Jeanne Goodman

Conservator, TAMU Libraries
Conservator for the University Libraries at Texas A&M University. Received MLIS from Simmons College with a concentration in Preservation and undergraduate work with University of Delaware in Collections Care. Completed the full-time Bookbinding program at North Bennet Street School... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Electronic Media) Collaboration in the Aesthetic Zone: Trisha Brown and Robert Rauschenberg
Set and Reset is a masterpiece of American postmodern dance, establishing Trisha Brown's role as a seminal choreographer working within abstraction. The performance, a collaborative project between Trisha Brown (choreography), Laurie Anderson (music), and Robert Rauschenberg (set and costumes), made its U.S. debut in 1983 at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, New York. To assure the longevity of Set and Reset, preserving the set’s film elements has become a collaborative effort between two of the artists’ estates, demonstrating a new preservation strategy for the exchange of information, histories, funding, storage, and clarification of rights. Since it's inception, the Trisha Brown Dance Company has frequently toured Set and Reset domestically and internationally, including a major performance this past spring 2017 as part of the Rauschenberg’s exhibition at Tate Modern, London. Prior to London, the performance continually used Rauschenberg’s original set, which Rauschenberg entitled Elastic Carrier (Shiner) despite the entire performance being named Set and Reset. The set consisted of a freestanding multi-pyramid structure on which montaged archival footage from 6 reels of films is projected, and the film elements were deteriorating from years of continued use. Recognizing this, TBDC applied without success for several grants to preserve the films. The project was "set and reset" a few times until fall 2016 when TBDC joined with the Rauschenberg Foundation and work proceeded with BB Optics and independent media conservator, Shu-Wen Lin. The result of this project debuted at the performance in London. Throughout the preservation project, we endeavored to track and document the reasoning behind the unavoidable changes between the 1983 and 2017 presentations. Given the collaborative nature, we carefully address the following issues - who is responsible to preserve a moving image work that is part of a performance? Is Elastic Carrier (Shiner) an independent work, or may it only exist as an element of the dance? What is the implications of migrating a moving image work in performance from film to digital projection? This panel aims to share the continuing conversation among estates and foundations, and to shed light on issues and principles surrounding the preservation of moving images in performative artworks.

Co-Authors
avatar for Shu-Wen Lin

Shu-Wen Lin

Lunder Conservation Fellow in Time-based Media, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Shu-Wen Lin received her MA from the Moving Image Archiving and Preservation program at New York University in 2016. For the past five years, she has been working with physical and digital collections to cultivate her interests and passion for preserving the landscape of twentieth... Read More →
avatar for Cori Olinghouse

Cori Olinghouse

Archive Director, Trisha Brown Dance Company
Cori Olinghouse is an interdisciplinary artist, archivist, and curator. Since 2009, she has served as Archive Director for the Trisha Brown Dance Company, a company she danced for from 2002-2006. Olinghouse is currently developing a series of artist archivist projects that explore... Read More →
avatar for Francine Snyder

Francine Snyder

Director of Archives and Scholarship, Robert Rauschenberg Foundation
Francine Snyder is the Director of Archives and Scholarship at the Robert Rauschenberg Foundation. Prior to the Rauschenberg Foundation, Ms. Snyder spent nearly a decade as Director of the Library and Archives at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and, before that, she was a Project... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Objects + Archaeological Conservation) Gold Working at Ur: A Collaborative Project to Better Understand Ancient Gold Smithing
This paper presents recent research on gold artifacts from the Royal Cemetery of Ur, ca. 2450-2100 BCE and proposes some possible methods for their manufacture. Sir Leonard Woolley excavated these artifacts at the site of Tell al-Muqayyar (ancient Ur) in southern Iraq in the 1920s-1930’s as part of a project sponsored by the Penn Museum and the British Museum. Iraq’s 1924 Antiquities Law provided for a division of finds, and half the material went to the Iraq Museum, with a quarter going to the Penn Museum and a quarter going to the British Museum. The initial data were collected as part of the Ur Digitization Project, a joint initiative between the Penn Museum and the British Museum to digitize objects and records at both institutions. The collaborative nature of the Ur digitization project fostered interdisciplinary research at the Penn Museum. These relationships have continued beyond the Ur Digitization Project and so too has the examination of the gold from Ur. Initial analysis of the gold from Ur focused on objects from Private Grave (PG) 1422. It has since expanded to include a diverse selection of gold items from the Royal Cemeteries as new research has been conducted in preparation for the re-installation of the Middle East galleries at the Museum. This paper will focus on three distinct object types, gold vessels, gold jewelry, and gold fillets. All the data presented here were captured non-invasively using digital X-radiography and digital photomicrographs. While X-radiography and microscopy are not new techniques for the examination of archaeological objects, new developments in digital processing allows for better data collection that can highlight features previously difficult to capture. The present study combines the knowledge of conservators, archaeometallurgists, and archaeologists to better understand how the gold vessels and adornments from the royal cemeteries may have been manufactured. This interdisciplinary study places the objects within their archaeological context as well as highlights which aspects of their manufacture are significant.

Speakers
avatar for Tessa de Alarcon

Tessa de Alarcon

Project Conservator, Penn Museum
Tessa de Alarcon has been a Project Conservator at the Penn Museum since 2012. She received her B.A. from Carleton College in 2004 where she majored in studio art and minored in archaeology, and her M.A. from the UCLA/Getty Program in the Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic... Read More →

Co-Authors
MJ

Moritz Jansen

Teaching Specialist for Archaeometallurgy for the Center for the Analysis of Archaeological Materials, Penn Museum
Moritz Jansen has been the Teaching Specialist for Archaeometallurgy at the new Center for the Analysis of Archaeological Materials at the Penn Museum since October 2015. Before he came to the Penn Museum he was employed as a Research Fellow in the Department for Archaeometallurgy... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Richard Zettler

Dr. Richard Zettler

Associate Curator-in-Charge of Penn Museum’s Near East Section, Penn Museum
Richard L. Zettler is an archaeologist specializing in Mesopotamia, the region occupied by modern Iraq and Syria. He received his MA and PhD (1984) in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations from the University of Chicago. He worked at Nippur, early Mesopotamia’s religious center... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Paintings) Gabriel Revel’s "Portrait of a Sculptor": a painting and treatment in transition.
The examination and treatment of Old Master works inevitably involves the interpretation and conceptual deconstruction of a complex overlay of visual evidence of the artist’s studio practice, natural aging of materials, past structural treatments, cleanings, restorations, and even associated damage. In the case of a portrait by the French baroque academic painter Gabriel Revel, these tasks were complicated by the dramatic revelation of compositional features in part obscured by the painter himself in pentimento. In particular, the rendering of a small statuette that had been covered by past restoration raised questions about the correct reading of the piece. As part of the creative evolution of the portrait, Revel modified the left forearm and hand position to make room for the inclusion of a classical statuary fragment of a head. Yet the positioning of the fingers is ambiguous and the painter’s intentions are unclear as to whether the portrait was meant to contain both of the sculptural fragments or just one. Digital X-radiography imaging of the substrate paint layers conducted at Oregon Health and Sciences University was hampered by an aluminum sheet concealed within the wax resin lining dating to the 1960s. Mammography, with a higher resolution for assessing subtle differences between densities in materials, also provided limited results regarding the original composition. Imaging was helpful, but failed to present a clear answer to questions that remained regarding the reconciliation of the various compositional features of the subject’s left hand and his possessions. Reversal of the lining and removal of the aluminum sheet were considered to improve imaging clarity, but eliminated as options due to the sustained structural stability of the lining materials. Ultimately, a bold curatorial decision was made to temporarily reveal all compositional elements of the painting. Although the composition has greater clarity and visual strength without the statuette, suggesting a reason why it was previously masked, the restoration choice was acknowledged as potentially a transitional state. It is hoped that bringing attention to the work will inspire research of Gabriel Revel, an artist with scarce dedicated scholarship, and therefore provide greater clarity regarding the artist’s intentions. The paper will discuss conservation of the portrait as a sum of multiple historic identities, and the decision making process that guided the treatment choices in the formal interpretation, perhaps ephemeral, of "Portrait of a Sculptor".

Speakers
avatar for Nina Olsson

Nina Olsson

Owner, Precision Mat, LLC
Nina Olsson is a conservator of paintings in private practice and researcher established in Portland, Oregon in 2001. Since 2015, Nina is also president and co-founder of Heritage Conservation Group, LLC, a group of Portland-based conservators of various specialties. From 2011-2014... Read More →
avatar for Samantha Springer

Samantha Springer

Conservator, Portland Art Museum
Samantha Springer relocated to Portland, Oregon in 2015 to take the position of Conservator at the Portland Art Museum. While Samantha remains a generalist due to her responsibility for care of a broad collection, she has particular interest in preventive conservation, sustainability... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Photographic Materials) Revealing History with Moisture and Megabytes: Curled Panorama Prints from WWI and WWII
This case study presents an ongoing project in collaboration with a military history museum and their archives for the conservation and digital preservation of 150 - 200 silver gelatin panorama prints from World War I (1917 -1918) and World War II (1940 - 1944). This project began in 2011 and work continues as funds are available. Along the way, other work has been requested and some replica digital prints have been made for the Adjutant General's office, the HQ offices, and VIP Officers' temporary housing.

Using example prints of the project, I will explain and illustrate the steps taken from the receipt and documentation of the original photographs, through the humidifying and flattening of the prints, to the repair and/or lining for stabilization. The next steps for the digital reformatting and any digital repair to the photographs will explain the level of capture and files that were requested by the museum's archivist. Finally, the reprinting of the photographs as digital prints in oversized formats will be adiscussed. To date, approximately 30 individual images that were in the original collection have been conserved.

Over the past six years, there have been new donations to the museum and donors have requested copies of the donated prints.  The museum has agreed, using some of their funds for this purpose. There have been approximately 7-9 unaccessioned prints that were requested to be reformatted instead of the original group.  One of the most interesting of the new prints is believed to be a photograph of the first Airborne Company formed in the U.S. Army.  

Sizes of prints ranged from 3"x 12", to 10"x 38", to 8"x 48", and the reformatted digital image files run into the gigabyte sizes. The prints are on neutral tone B&W papers, warm tone B&W papers, sepia and brown toned B&W papers. Some are semi-matte, though most are matte finished papers and all have a baryta coating. A few have the soldier's handwriting on them, showing where the "saloon", mess hall, "my tent", and various companies of a brigade. This presentation will show not only the details of the original materials used in these prints and steps used to conserve them, but will also allow us to put into perspective of the human element that was, and is, a part of war and the preparations. It reveals some of the naïveté that men and societies had when soldiers reported to training for combat during those eras.

Speakers
avatar for Kim R. Du Boise-[PA]

Kim R. Du Boise-[PA]

President; Senior Photograph Conservator, PhotoArts Imaging Professionals, LLC
Kim R. Du Boise has over 40 years’ experience with art, photography, and photographic materials as a photographer, university/college instructor, printmaker & conservator. Kim developed the art department at Pearl River Community College in 1987-1994 and a BFA curriculum in Photography... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) A contribution toward the identification of wood by heart-cut pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry.
This paper presents a novel method for conducting wood identification based on chemical analysis using heart-cut pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HC-Py-GC/MS) to analyze volatile fractions and thermal decomposition products from finely divided wood samples. This method has several advantages over traditional anatomical identification including a significantly reduced sample size (0.3 mg of powder vs. more than 40 mg for traditional thin anatomical sections), and increased ease of sampling. The method also shows promise for successfully discriminating between species that are not separable by anatomical methods. The use of an established analytical technique that is widely found in conservation science laboratories should make this method readily accessible to many researchers in the cultural heritage sector. The use of user-friendly and commercially available software for the evaluation of the GC/MS data also makes it possible to develop a reference database that can be easily shared and referenced by collaborating researchers. Evolved gas analysis (EGA) was used to establish an optimized furnace temperature that minimizes the production of compounds from the pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose while maximizing the contribution of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and extractives, which are more likely to be characteristic of specific species. The use of a selective sampler system further reduces cellulosic contributions to the chromatograms by diverting evolved gases away from the GC column after 30 seconds of sample residence in the pyrolyzer. Results were interpreted through comparison with reference standards utilizing F-Search from Frontier Laboratories, which is software commonly used for the identification of polymeric materials and additives in plastics. The software produces a weighted average of the mass spectra of all integrated components in a chromatogram (an INT-SUM spectrum), which can be matched against an established library of standards. Comparison of the chromatograms and statistical evaluation of the INT-SUM spectra by F-Search provided accurate results and eliminated the need for specific compound identification, thus rapidly increasing the speed of data interpretation. F-Search also allows for the exclusion of peaks, which is a feature used to eliminate problematic peaks produced by contaminants such as glues, varnishes or waxes. For this preliminary study, reference samples of 62 wood species commonly found in decorative arts collections were analyzed with the optimized HC-Py-GC/MS method. The resulting chromatograms and INT-SUM spectra were compiled in a reference library. The method was validated by analyzing samples taken from 17th – 19th century objects within the J. Paul Getty Museum collection and comparing the results to identifications made through traditional anatomical study. All of the samples were correctly identified through the combined use of the F-search ranking system and visual comparison of the chromatograms.

Speakers
avatar for Arlen Heginbotham

Arlen Heginbotham

Conservator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture, J. Paul Getty Museum
Arlen Heginbotham received his A.B. in East Asian Studies from Stanford University and his M.A. in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College. He is currently Conservator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture at the J. Paul Getty Museum. Arlen’s research interests include the history... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Jessica Chasen

Jessica Chasen

Assistant Conservator, The J. Paul Getty Museum
Jessica Chasen is an assistant conservator in Decorative Arts and Sculpture Conservation at the J. Paul Getty Museum. Jessica earned an M.S. in Art Conservation from Winterthur / University of Delaware with a specialization in objects conservation and a minor in painted surfaces... Read More →
avatar for Michael R. Schilling

Michael R. Schilling

Senior Scientist, Yale Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage
Michael Schilling is head of Materials Characterization research at the Getty Conservation Institute, which focuses on development of analytical methods for studying classes of materials used by artists and conservators. He specializes in gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:00am

(Textiles) The Mortlake Horses: A Collaborative Approach to the Conservation of Seventeenth-Century British Tapestries at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
In preparation for the fall 2019 re-opening of The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s renovated British Galleries, Associate Conservator Olha Yarema-Wynar and Assistant Conservator Alexandra Barlow completed the long-term conservation treatment of the seventeenth-century tapestry The Destruction of the Children of Niobe (#36.149.1) from the English Mortlake workshop. This tapestry is one of two within The Met’s collection from The Horses, a set which depicts riding horses found in Ovid’s Metamorphoses.
The Destruction of the Children of Niobe, measuring approximately twelve feet by twenty feet, is impressive in size and image. Past restoration efforts of this large artwork are visible throughout the piece, and within this one tapestry exists numerous examples of the techniques used in the history of tapestry preservation. The most recent treatment was informed by an understanding of these historic techniques and the skill and experience of the conservators.  Stimulating conversations with curators at The Metropolitan Museum of Art also influenced the treatment by helping to determine the aesthetic vision for the tapestry. These discussions presented a challenge on how to accommodate the vision of the curators with the conservators’ decisions about stabilization needs and the tenets of current conservation philosophy.
For both conservators and curators, historic repairs are a valuable document of prior methods. They provide an understanding of changes in technical skill, the effects of restorations, and the shifting viewpoints on the value of tapestries. The conservators working on this project were able to survey in detail these previous techniques. This presentation discusses both the methods that have proved stable, as well as those that have caused additional conservation issues over time. While many of the historic insertions are strong and discrete, earlier use of darning and mending stitches have caused distortions to the surrounding areas. It was only after careful dialogue and discussion on the stability of the textile that these previous repairs were documented, removed, and updated. Time was also a consideration throughout the entire treatment.
The 2016-2017 treatment involved both conservation and restoration stitching, as well as a combination of both handwoven fabric used for reproduction gallon borders and commercially available fabric for stabilization and the lining.
As a case study, this presents the examination of one object and how its materials and techniques provide critical annotation to the history of the preservation of tapestries.  

Speakers
avatar for Alexandra Barlow

Alexandra Barlow

Assistant Conservator, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Alexandra Barlow, Assistant Conservator, is currently working with Olha Yarema-Wynar on the treatment of three large tapestries in preparation for the renovation of the British Galleries. She received her MA in Fashion and Textile Studies with a focus on Conservation from the Fashion... Read More →
avatar for Olha Yarema Wynar

Olha Yarema Wynar

Associate Conservator, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Olha Yarema-Wynar, Associate Conservator, is responsible for the conservation of textiles from the Department of Arms and Armor and the Department of European Sculpture and Decorative Art's tapestries collection. She holds an MFA in decorative and applied arts from the Lviv National... Read More →



Friday June 1, 2018 9:00am - 9:30am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Electronic Media) Lighting Round - Emulating Horizons (2008) by Geert Mul: the challenges of intensive graphics rendering
Similar to a conservator going into the details of a certain paint or plastic used in an artwork, I will concentrate on the graphics pipeline of Horizons (2008), a software-based artwork by Dutch media artist Geert Mul. The graphics pipeline is a chain of software and hardware tools a computer needs to render graphics. It can be very specific for video games or software-based artworks that make use of intensive, real-time graphics rendering and it has an impact on the preservation strategy. This research is based on the publications (Falcao et al. 2014)1 and (Rechert et al. 2016)2. Computer rendered graphics are quite common in software-based art. Artists may use video game software to produce video games for their simulations or interactive animations as for instance for Sow Farm (2009) by John Gerrard or Olympia (2016) by David Claerbout. Other artists and their collaborators produce the software themselves as for instance Geert Mul and his programmer Carlo Prelz did for Horizons (2008). Horizons (2008) has a classical setup for a computer-based artwork: it receives user input from a sensor, the computer generates a video by combining image sources and the sensor input and outputs the video on video projectors. Thus, it should be possible to generalize the findings of this research for artworks with a corresponding setup. While preparing for his retrospective, Geert Mul realised, that many of his artworks did not function anymore and needed updating or transfer to newer hardware. Consequently, he initiated a project with LIMA, a platform for research and archiving of media artworks in Amsterdam, in order to make his artworks “future proof” 3. Horizons (2008) did not have an immediate problem. However, when evaluating its long-term preservation options, it turned out that its graphics rendering was video card dependent. The model of the video card was hard-coded into the software, which means that changing the video card makes the work dysfunctional. As emulators of personal computers usually do not emulate specific video cards, I also feared, that Horizons could not be emulated. The hard-coding of the video card could be remedied by adapting the reference from the old to the new video card. However, it would still not make the work suitable for emulation. Furthermore, it appeared that certain intermediary software libraries are necessary in order to make the work independent from the hardware and therefore enable software rendering or virtualization. By analysing the graphics pipeline, it is thus possible to assess with a high probability whether the work can be emulated or virtualized. Other factors that might impede an emulation such as peripheral equipment are not discussed here. Yet, I will show, what has to be considered when “building” such an emulation or virtualization for graphics intensive artworks. 1 Falcao, Patricia; Ashe, Alistair; Jones, Brian (2014): Virtualisation as a Tool for the Conservation of Software-Based Artworks. Tate. London. 2 Rechert, Klaus; Ensom, Tom; Falcao, Patricia (2016): Introduction to an emulation-based preservation strategy for software-based artworks. Pericles / Tate. 3 http://www.li-ma.nl/site/news/future-proof-transformation-digital-art-2017

Speakers
avatar for Claudia Roeck

Claudia Roeck

PhD candidate, University of Amsterdam
Claudia started her professional career as an environmental engineer. Inspired by art, she later added studies in conservation of contemporary art in Berne, Switzerland with focus on media art, that she completed in 2016. From 2013 to 2016, she worked on the acquisition of video... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 9:45am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Architecture) Can’t Touch This! The Treatment of Original Distemper Painted Plaster Walls
In May of 2016, members of the Department of Conservation and Technical Research at the Walters Art Museum began to investigate the original plaster walls in the library of 1 West Mount Vernon Place, which is now a part of the museum complex. This impressive family home was designed by architects Niernsee and Neilson and was completed by1851. After a series of other owners and uses, the building was given to the museum by the City of Baltimore in 1984. It subsequently underwent significant renovations and opened to the public in 1991 as a gallery of Asian Art. In 2016, after 25 years of use, upgrades to the HVAC system and the installation of a fire suppression system led to the temporary closure of the building and allowed for gallery refurbishments. When the conservation department was asked to remove fabric paneling from the library so that it could be replaced, they were surprised to find that the original painted ornamental plaster that had not been viewed since 1991 was largely intact. This raised and decoratively painted ornamental plaster was first covered with fabric in the 1890s when the house underwent significant alterations. At that time, many of the high points of the plaster had been chiseled off to allow the fabric panels to span the walls without distortion. In addition, later upgrades, including the installation of gas and electric lines for wall sconces and an air duct were made without regard to the plaster walls. Despite these interventions, the original color scheme and decorative painting were intact, especially in the protected upper areas of the walls. One interesting feature of the design was the use of faux wood graining on the raised plaster elements. The faux wood graining integrated the painted plaster with the surrounding woodwork. Early hand-colored photographs of the room also show that there was an elaborate ornamental plaster ceiling that was later covered with a wooden beam ceiling. Despite numerous alterations to the room, the conservation staff advocated for the preservation and display of this rare survival of an original architectural painted finish. Given the size of the project, the conservation department contracted additional help to complete the conservation and restoration of the library walls. Once the project started, the extreme sensitivity of the distemper painted finish to water and polar solvents posed significant challenges in the selection of treatment materials and methods. The application of any sort of mold making material to the friable and readily stained painted surface was impossible, meaning that a “touch-less” method was needed to re-create large missing raised plaster elements. A partnership with the 3-D scanning and printing program at Harford Community College provided some creative solutions for this project. Silicone solvents aided in removing some large spackle repairs from the walls by providing a safe way to remove a water-soluble material from a water-soluble surface. The material challenges of this project led to creative solutions that can hopefully be adapted for future use in architecture and other specialties.

Speakers
avatar for Stephanie Marie Hulman

Stephanie Marie Hulman

Conservator, Decorative Arts Conservation LLC
Stephanie Hulman is a professional conservator of decorative and historic finishes, and she has been working in the field of heritage preservation since 2005. She earned her Master of Science in Art Conservation degree from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation... Read More →
TP

Tia Polidori

Conservation Technician, Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library
Tia is a conservation technician working on a two-year IMLS grant at Winterthur recoating silver objects in the Winterthur collection.


Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 10:00am
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Book and Paper) The unintended effects of some book treatments on original or early binding structures and materials
The treatment of bound materials in special collections has become more conservative over the past half century. Today, book conservators choose treatments that safeguard physical information intrinsic to early bindings. The treatments focus on mending and stabilizing book structures, which lessen the need for invasive treatments such as rebinding or rebacking covers. However, in repairing rather than replacing older structures and materials, the book conservator is often challenged by the binding's deteriorated condition, which can range from slight to considerable. At the Ransom Center, we have found that the repair of one binding structure can stress and, in some cases, break adjacent deteriorated binding components. This presentation will discuss problems that typical repairs can cause such as a new break in the sewing structure or stiffness in the spine, which changes how a book opens and how the pages turn. Techniques used by Ransom Center conservators to minimize stress to older components in order to preserve early structures and materials will be described using case studies.

Speakers
avatar for Olivia Primanis

Olivia Primanis

Senior Book Conservator, Harry Ransom Center
Olivia Primanis is the Senior Book Conservator at the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas, where she performs conservation treatments and manages the book lab and special projects. She is interested in general conservation and preservation subjects relating to library and museum... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 10:00am
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Objects + Archaeological Conservation) The Tell-Tale Conservation of Two 2,000 Year Old Leather Water-Skins
In the early sixties, archaeologist Yigael Yadin excavated the "Cave of Letters" located near the Dead Sea in the Judean Desert, Israel. The cave probably served as a hideout during the second Jewish revolt against the Romans in 132 CE. Among many rare finds were several vegetable tanned leather water-skins, two of them in nearly complete form. While water-skins were originally created to contain liquids, the content of one of these excavated water-skins was different. It included: unspun wool skeins, jewelry, clothing, small glass vessels, wooden cosmetics utensils, and spindle whorls, indicating a secondary use of the water-skin as a satchel. The most historically significant items in the water-skin were a packet of letters written by Shimon Bar Kokhba himself, the leader of the rebellion, to his subordinates in hiding - hence the name “Cave of Letters”. The dry, stable conditions in the cave resulted in the leather’s fine state of preservation. Details such as historical repairs, in the form of sewn patches, could clearly be recognized in several places on the water-skin, and its opening end was still tied with an original rope. The water-skins, which are under the jurisdiction of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), are part of the archaeological collection of the Israel Museum (IMJ) in Jerusalem and are on display. Prior to their arrival at the IMJ, the water-skins were treated, probably in the mid 1960’s. Although no treatment records exist, black and white photographs from the excavation revealed that this initial treatment included cleaning, reshaping and inserting an inner support of a thick, cream colored fabric stuffed with hay. Nylon filament was used to hold down leather pieces which were folded over. In 1998, the IMJ’s Metal and Organic Materials Conservation Department was asked to assess the condition of the two treated water-skins. The evaluation concluded that while the leather was in exceptional state for its age, the 1960’s materials used in the treatment were not of conservation grade, and the aesthetics of the objects were not pleasing. It was therefore decided that one of the water-skins would be retreated. In 2017, fifty years after its initial treatment, and twenty years after the retreatment of its “twin”, the second water-skin was retreated. Over the span of 55 years, three different teams of well-meaning professionals tended to these invaluable treasures. Each team, with their knowledge and available materials, used these to their best abilities. This presentation aims to reveal, compare, and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment within the perspective of time.

Speakers
avatar for Irit Lev Beyth

Irit Lev Beyth

Conservator, Israel Museum
Irit Lev Beyth graduated in 1994 from Queen's University with a Master's of Art in Conservation. She interned at The Brooklyn Museum of Art and has been an objects conservator at The Israel Museum since 1998. In 2015 she was appointed Head of Metals and Organic Objects Conservation... Read More →
avatar for Hadas Seri

Hadas Seri

Object Conservator, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
Hadas Seri is an object conservator at the Metals and Organic Materials Conservation, the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. She graduated in 2010 from the Master of Art Conservation program at Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Ms. Seri holds a second MA in Art History and a B.Sc... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Liatte Dotan

Liatte Dotan

Student, The Israel Museum
Liatte is a pre-program intern in object conservation at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. In 2016 she obtained her B.A from the Honors Art History Program at Tel Aviv University. Liatte intends to continue her studies with a degree in art conservation in the coming years.
avatar for Jessica Lewinsky

Jessica Lewinsky

Object Conservator, Israel Museum
Jessica Lewinsky is an objects conservator at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. She specializes in collections care and preventive conservation. In 2014 she obtained her B.A.Sc. in Art and Heritage Conservation from ECRO, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; and in 2017 her M.A. in Theory and... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 10:00am
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Paintings) Old World, New World: Painting Practices in the Reformed 1686 Painter’s Guild of Mexico City
In 1911, Emily Johnston de Forest, daughter of the founding president of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, John Taylor Johnston, donated her vast collection of tin-glazed earthenware to encourage the creation of a permanent display showcasing the artistic grandeur of colonial Mexican art. Despite her efforts, de Forest’s vision was not realized until 2013, when the Museum appointed a curator of Colonial Latin American Art. Since then, the Museum has organized exhibitions and acquired artworks from New Spain. For more than three hundred years this Spanish kingdom encompassed modern-day Central America up to the western half of the United States, as well as the Philippines. The Museum’s newly focused interest in the artistic output of this territory prompted the technical examination of two paintings, one by Cristóbal de Villalpando (ca. 1649-1714) and the other by José Sánchez (active 1686-95). From 1686 to 1688, these artists worked closely in the Painter’s Guild of Mexico City, scrutinizing the works of many young aspiring artists. In this capacity, they were responsible for shaping Mexican artistic practices well into the 18th century.

Cristóbal de Villalpando, the most productive painter of the New Spanish Baroque, developed an individual aesthetic that distinguished him from his contemporaries. The technical study of his Adoration of the Magi (1683) was carried out for a monographic exhibition on the artist that took place at the Metropolitan from July 25 to October 15, 2017. Unpublished and unknown to scholars, The Adoration has been in the collection of Fordham University since the mid-19th century, and has only recently been included into the artist’s oeuvre. The Marriage of the Virgin (ca. 1690) by José Sánchez was acquired by the Metropolitan Museum in 2016. It is one scene from a series depicting the life of the Virgin Mary, a subject frequently explored by painters in Spanish America. The paintings were created within a span of ten years, during which these artists served two years together as Guild examiners.

The results of our findings will be discussed in both regional and international contexts and will reveal the close connections and differences between preparation practices in Spain and its transatlantic territories. Of particular interest is the identification of ash in the ground layers of both paintings. This type of preparation is described by Francisco Pacheco in his 1649 treatise and has been identified in paintings of artists practicing in Madrid. This study presents material evidence that Mexican artists were following Madrilenian traditions, which had most likely been passed down through the Spanish painters that arrived in New Spain from the motherland.

This study comes at a propitious time. Art historical attention to New Spain has increased in the last decades but technical studies that contextualize the unique qualities of these important paintings are limited. Focusing attention on the individual contributions of New Spanish artists is essential to increase awareness of their artistic production, and create a body of knowledge about their material practices. 

Authors in Publication Order: José Luis Lazarte Luna, Dorothy Mahon, Silvia Centeno, Federico Caró, Louisa Smieska

Speakers
avatar for José Luis Lazarte Luna

José Luis Lazarte Luna

Andrew W. Mellon Fellow, Department of Paintings Conservation, The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Department of Paintings Conservation
José Luis Lazarte Luna obtained a Master of Science degree from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation with a specialization in paintings. He is completing his second year as a fellow in the Department of Paintings Conservation, The Metropolitan Museum... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Federico Carò

Federico Carò

Associate Research Scientist, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Department of Scientific Research
Federico Carò received his PhD in Earth Science from the University of Pavia, Italy, where he worked on the characterization of natural and artificial building materials for conservation purposes. Since joining the staff of The Metropolitan Museum of Art he has investigated inorganic... Read More →
avatar for Silvia Centeno

Silvia Centeno

Research Scientist, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Department of Scientific Research
Silvia A. Centeno is currently a Research Scientist in Department of Scientific Research (DSR) at The Metropolitan Museum of Art (The Met), in New York, where her main responsibilities include the investigation of the material aspects of works of art, with a focus on paintings, works... Read More →
avatar for Dorothy Mahon

Dorothy Mahon

Conservator, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fairchild Center for Paintings Conservation
Dorothy Mahon, Conservator, received her MA in the history of art and a certificate of advanced study in conservation from the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University. She was appointed to the staff in 1981 and has conserved paintings spanning the collection, with emphasis on... Read More →
avatar for Louisa Smieska

Louisa Smieska

Andrew W. Mellon Senior Fellow, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Department of Scientific Research
Louisa Smieska received her PhD in Materials Chemistry from Cornell University in 2015 and then pursued postdoctoral research at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), where she developed expertise in scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and the corresponding data analysis. Her... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 10:00am
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Photographic Materials) From Here On and Beyond: Researching Objects, History and Collection at The Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art's 4-year Thomas Walther Collection project culminated in December 2014 with a symposium, Object: Photo print publication, website and exhibition.  This material-based study of the Walter Collection is symptomatic of a larger institutional interest in materials characterization that is not confined to a single collection, medium or even institution, but part of an ongoing effort to promote materials-based scholarship at large. Three years hence, assimilation of conservation material content continues at MoMA as well as in related arts fields, as can be seen in curatorial, technical art history and academic initiatives focused on material culture.
In 2005 with the Plane Image: A Brice Marden Retrospective, 2006 with Dada in the Collection, and on a yearly basis since, the department of conservation at MoMA has published formative work on individual artists, or artistic movements, in conjunction with curatorial initiatives.  Subjects include work of Pablo Picasso, Bill Brandt, Henri Matisse, Bruce Conner, Francis Picabia and Frank Lloyd Wright, among many others. In 2012, there was a considerable uptick in these studies which now include online publications.  Raisonné-style format to artistic studies is increasingly seen as a model. 
This presentation will outline the development of MoMA’s conservation scholarship, consider how this trend is reflected in and parallel to, sister institution's programming, posit views on the causes of this trend and review resources for these critical investigations.

Speakers
avatar for Lee Ann Daffner

Lee Ann Daffner

Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Conservator of Photographs, The Museum of Modern Art
Lee Ann Daffner is the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Conservator of Photographs at The Museum of Modern Art in New York City since 1998 and is responsible for all aspects of the preservation, conservation and materials research for photographs in all the Museum’s collections... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 10:00am
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) Interdisciplinary and Multi-Technique Study of Previous Conservation, Bending Media, and Pigments of a Painted Polychrome Coffin from the Late Period
This paper describes the scientific investigations of an Ancient Egyptian painted wooden coffin, dating back to late period (664-332 BC). The polychrome coffin was previously restored, and previous plaster fills obscured original surface. The focus of this study is to use a multi-analytical approach to map and identify the pigments used on a polychrome wooden coffin , as well as to provide a deeper understanding of the painting techniques, the condition of the object, identification of wood species, identification of insects founded inside coffin, previous conservation materials, ground layer and painted layer included in this study. Several analytical and observation methods were employed in the identification processes such as the Light optical microscopy (OM), X-ray fluorescence portable (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Moreover, the application of technical photography provided useful information about the spatial distribution of the surviving original pigments, in particular visible-induced luminescence, which played an important role to recognize spatial distribution of areas containing Egyptian blue, even if it is in traces or mixed with other pigments, the authors were significantly interested in mapping technical photography (TP) including IR false color with XRF results as a non destructive methods to identify coffin pigments. Red pigment identified as Cinnabar, and recorded as a rare pigment found in late period collections. Key words: painted wooden coffin; Multispectral imaging; XRF; wood identification; Cinnabar

Speakers
avatar for M. Moustafa

M. Moustafa

Scientific Conservator, Grand Egyptian Museum
Licence in Archaeology from Cairo University, Faculty of Archeology, Conservation Departement , 2010 ,now he is master student specialized in conservation of wooden artifacts and working in his master about (Treatment and Conservation gilded and painted wooden artifacts with application... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr. Medhat Abdallah

Dr. Medhat Abdallah

Head, Wood Laboratory, Grand Egyptian Museum, Conservation Center, Ministry of Antiquities
Dr. Medhat abd allah abd elhamid, Director of Conservation for the Sqqara Collection, is a specialist in conservation of wooden artifacts. He has published many papers and posters in international periodicals and conferences and shared as an Egyptian expert in the joint conservation... Read More →
avatar for Ahmed Abdrabou

Ahmed Abdrabou

Conservator, Wood Laboratory, Grand Egyptian Museum, Conservation Center, Ministry of Antiquities
Ahmed Abdrabou is conservator at the Wood Laboratory, Grand Egyptian Museum, Conservation Centre (GEM.CC), Ministry of Antiquities, Egypt. Ahmed carried out several treatments on many museum objects, in particular the collection of King Tutankhamun. He is currently the head of documentation... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Hussein M. Kamal

Dr. Hussein M. Kamal

Technical Affairs, Grand Egyptian Museum, Conservation Center
Hussein M. Kamal, PhD in Conservation of Antiquities, is the General Director of Conservation Technical Affairs at the Grand Egyptian Museum, Egypt. He has published extensively in different conservation aspects and presented lots of issues in international conferences and congresses... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 10:00am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:30am

(Textiles) Confronting Challenges and Considering Consensus in the Conservation of Eighteenth-Century Fashion
This paper and presentation will focus on the conservation of an eighteenth-century French court dress and the research that this work inspired. Undertaken during a Fellowship at the Costume Institute, the treatment was an opportunity to consider broadly the conservation of garments from this time period. While there is no set of conservation methods or ethics unique to eighteenth-century costume, a collection survey of that century’s womenswear revealed certain patterns of degradation and common issues relating to both treatment and display. For example, how should conservators approach garments that have been altered, as so many eighteenth-century garments have been? Questions like this became the basis of a larger study of fashion conservation practice, drawing on both literature review and interviews with conservators in the United States, United Kingdom, and France. These not only provided an understanding of the range of possible solutions for the problems posed by eighteenth-century garments, but also shed light on a more abstract question: to what extent is there (or is there not) a consensus among conservators as to best practice for the conservation of fashion objects? Furthermore, do differences in approach lie along personal, institutional, or geographic lines?

Speakers
avatar for Marina Hays

Marina Hays

Polaire Weissman Fellow in Conservation, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Costume Institute
Marina Hays is the 2017-2018 Polaire Weissman Fund Fellow in Conservation at the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Costume Institute, where she is researching fashion conservation practice with a particular focus on eighteenth-century garments. She was previously an intern at The Met... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:30am - 10:00am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

9:45am

(Electronic Media) Lighting Round - Preserving Stephan von Huene’s electronic artworks by means of bit-stream documentation
The ZKM | Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe, Germany is well-known for its media art collection. Recently the ZKM inherited two artworks by German-Californian artist Stephan von Huene, which have been undergoing a comprehensive acquisition process by means of audio, video and bit-stream documentation during a one and a half year fellowship. Von Huene’s computer-based sound installation "What’s wrong with Art?" (1997) shall be core theme and case study of the given talk. Stephan von Huene is a particular case, when it comes to systematic documentation of his electronic artworks by the artist himself. The artists estate, a meticulous archive of photographic and technical documents, is demonstrating this systematic way of working, and thus is a outstanding source for researchers. "What’s wrong with Art?" (1997) consists of three computer controlled organ towers in the colors red, yellow and blue, a complex electronic circuit, custom-made computer hardware as well as executable and compiled files written by the artist. Assessing the risks, future access and preservation it became apparent that the computer, with its individual plug-in cards and compiled code once failing could not be reactivated, reproduced or emulated and would therefore be lost. To cope with this issue, the electronics technicians, information scientists and conservators of ZKM worked closely together to tackle the risk of loss by designing an individual “Logic Analyzer”, recording and documenting the output and bit-stream of the computer and conducting comprehensive documentation of the logic system.

Speakers
avatar for Sophie Magdalena Bunz

Sophie Magdalena Bunz

Conservator, Studio for Video Conservation Bern
Sophie Bunz completed a Masters program in Conservation-Restoration of Modern Materials and Media at the University of Arts Bern, Switzerland. After her studies she held an fellowship at the ZKM | Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe. Subsequently working as an assistant for her home... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 9:45am - 10:00am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Architecture) Moving a Monument: The Relocation of Extending Arms of Christ at Houston Methodist Hospital
Extending Arms of Christ is a 96’ L by 16’ H site-specific mosaic mural created in 1963 by Bruce Hayes for the front façade of Houston Methodist Hospital. Originally consisting of 3 large scale panels of Italian glass tesserae on a concrete bedding, the mosaic was designed to be the most prominent decorative feature above the entry doors to a major teaching hospital associated with Houston’s Baylor University medical school. Distinctly modern in character, the mosaic features the Christ figure with extended arms at the center of a geometric abstract background that is punctuated with stylized imagery of modern medical equipment, doctors, and historical figures, like Florence Nightingale. In 2014, RLA was contacted by Hunt Construction Group, a firm overseeing expansion of the hospital, to determine if the mosaic could be relocated into a 50’ atrium within the lobby of a new tower addition. Over the years, the mosaic had become obscured from the street by trees lining the sidewalk. A porte cochere, added in 1987, had covered up the bottom 4’ of the mosaic. Relocating the mosaic would allow it to be showcased once again for hospital patrons, as well as preserved and protected in a controlled interior setting. Moving an artwork of this size is challenging under any condition. This one was further complicated by its location over the hospital’s main entrance and next to the emergency room driveway, which barred the use of a crane or blocking of the street. A test probe revealed that the mosaic was separate from the wall of the building and therefore theoretically detachable. However, preclusion of the crane meant that the original panels, which measured 38’ 6” wide by 16’ high and weighed approximately 10,850 pounds, would need to be cut to allow them to be lowered by a gantry that could accommodate a maximum of 400 - 500 pounds. Our first task was to figure out how to do this without impacting the design elements, and determining in advance that the mosaic could later be re-assembled seamlessly. Because design of the new addition was completed by the time the mosaic relocation was considered, our next challenge was how to reinstall the artwork onto a metal stud wall. The engineer’s design solution involved the use of plywood, which raised concern because of possible warpage in the event of a catastrophic weather event. Said event occurred on August 25, 2017, when Hurricane Harvey devastated the Houston Metropolitan area. Installation of the 93 cut mosaic panels was completed at that point. Only the repair of the join lines remained to be done. As of this writing, we have not been able to return to Houston after Harvey. However, Hunt construction informs us that the mosaic is intact. As part of this presentation we will reveal what, if any, impact the hurricane had on the mosaic. The goal is to complete the conservation by December 2017.

Speakers
avatar for Kelly Ciociola-[PA]

Kelly Ciociola-[PA]

Senior Conservator, RLA Conservation
Kelly Ciociola holds a 2010 Masters in Historic Preservation with a concentration in materials conservation from the joint program of Clemson University and College of Charleston . A Professional Associate of the American Institute for Conservation, she presently serves as Senior... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Rosa Lowinger-[Fellow]

Rosa Lowinger-[Fellow]

Managing Principal, RLA Conservation
Rosa Lowinger has been a conservator of outdoor sculpture and public art since 1984. A graduate of the Conservation Center at NYU’s Institute of Fine Arts and a Fellow of the American Institute for Conservation, she is the principal of Rosa Lowinger and Associates, a private sculpture... Read More →
avatar for Christina Varvi-[PA]

Christina Varvi-[PA]

Senior Conservator, RLA Conservation, Inc.
Christina Varvi, Senior Conservator and Professional Associate of the AIC, holds an M.S. in Historic Preservation with a concentration in Materials Conservation from Columbia University. A specialist in architectural and public art conservation, Christina is RLA’s lead professional... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Book and Paper) Transparent Liquid Colors: "Not Just For Ornament"
Today, transparent graphic effects can be made with the click of a mouse. However, in the 18th century, a specific type of colorant was commercially manufactured to render clear, brilliant, transparent effects. These colorants were called transparent liquid colors. They are little mentioned in the conservation literature and in the history of watercolor. These liquids are very different from water-based media used for other types of objects, such as miniatures and even other types of popular prints. The transparent liquids were commonly used for coloring maps, plans, prints, and even painting on velvet. This paper will examine the history and development of the transparent liquids and will include observations from recreations based on recipes found in historic manuals. The identification of transparent liquids, visually and analytically, may help to answer one of the vexing questions regarding hand coloring – that is “who put the color on the map or print?” The use of the transparent colors may suggest a professional or technical hand, versus amateur, particularly after the invention of watercolor in cake form.

Speakers
avatar for Joan Irving

Joan Irving

Conservator, Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library
Joan received a B.A. in Art History from the University of Pennsylvania, graduating Summa Cum Laude in 1982. From 1985 to 1988, Joan coordinated the exhibition, catalogue, and conservation for “Legacies of Genius,” an exhibition of over 200 rare books, manuscripts, and works of... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Collection Care) Towards understanding the basis of Oddy test failures via quantitative volatile organics and other analytical analyses
We have been examining and testing a range of building, construction, and housing materials for their suitability and level of risk to a range of collection materials. Upon initial testing of proposed materials for use in two large construction/renovation projects, a substantial number of the materials were found to fail the standard Oddy metal coupon test, often in a rather unusual and/or spectacular manner. It should be noted that the original Oddy test focused on the impact on metal only, rather than considering the impact on other material compounds as the dose recipient (such as paper, parchment, polymers, etc.). We have been examining the compounds emitted by these construction and housing materials and how they interact/react with the metal coupons. Through the use of thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry, we are able to identify and quantify the compounds emitted from each material. In addition, other analytical tools are being utilized to examine what compounds are depositing or have reacted at the surface of the Oddy test coupons during exposure to elevated temperatures and humidity. Coordinating and comparing the chemical analyses with the results from the Oddy test are improving our ability to understand the mechanism(s) behind the failure of the Oddy test and, in turn, guide and speed material product selection. Testing of proposed materials aims to minimize risk to the collection but this risk often cannot be entirely removed by product choice alone. As a means of mitigating the residual risk from volatiles, we have also examinined and characterized commercially available sorbent materials for their selectivity, capacity, functionality and adsorption/desorption characteristics. This presentation will detail our on-going research using quantitative volatile organic compound analyses of building, construction, housing, and sorbent materials to further understand and minimize the risk to the range of materials in our collections during storage and exhibition.

Speakers
avatar for Eric Monroe

Eric Monroe

Supervisory Physical Scientist, Library of Congress
Dr. Eric Monroe is a Supervisory Physical Scientist in the Preservation Research and Testing Division at the Libray of Congress. Dr. Monroe received his PhD in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana in 2008. From there, he completed postdoctoral studies... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Fenella France

Fenella France

Library of Congress
avatar for Amanda Jones

Amanda Jones

Preservation Specialist, Library of Congress
Amanda Jones is a Preservation Specialist in the Preservation Research and Testing Division at the Library of Congress.
avatar for Cindy Connelly Ryan

Cindy Connelly Ryan

Preservation Science Specialist, Library of Congress
Cindy Connelly Ryan is a conservation scientist and specialist in art technology source research at the Library of Congress Preservation Research and Testing Division in Washington, DC. Her research areas at LC have included accelerated aging methods, iron gall ink stabilization... Read More →
avatar for Kelli Stoneburner

Kelli Stoneburner

Preservation Technician, Library of Congress
Kelli Stoneburner is a Preservation Technician in the Preservation Research and Testing Division at the Library of Congress.

Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Electronic Media) Introducing ‘Code Resituation’: Applying the Concept of Minimal Intervention to the Conservation Treatment of Software-based Art
This joint paper proposes a new treatment method for the conservation of software-based art that was developed as part of the ongoing research collaboration between the Guggenheim Conservation Department and the Department of Computer Science at New York University. The new treatment technique, termed “code resituation” by the authors, is tailored to serve artworks where code intervention is necessary to restore the artwork’s functionality. Traditional code migration, as practiced by computer programmers, includes the deletion and replacement of non-functional, original code. Intended behaviors and discernable output of an artwork would be recreated by means of contemporary programming languages, aiming for the most elegant and efficient programming solutions currently available. This traditional migration approach, the authors argue, has the potential to strip an artwork of some or all traces of the artist’s hand. His or her choice of programming language, artistic expression as seen through nuances in the source code and algorithmic detail, code annotations and unrealized drafts can all be lost in code migration. Code resituation, instead, aims to preserve the original artist’s code while adding conservation code to reanimate the original to full functionality. With the development of this new treatment approach, the authors apply the conservation principle of minimal intervention to the conservation of software-based art. The new method of code resituation was successfully tested on three artworks from the Guggenheim collection, which were treated in the course of the Guggenheim’s initiative “Conserving Computer-based Art”.

Speakers
avatar for Deena Engel

Deena Engel

Clinical Professor and Director, Program in Digital Humanities and Social Science, Department of Computer Science, New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences
Deena Engel is a Clinical Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University as well as the Director of the Program in Digital Humanities and Social Science. She teaches undergraduate computer science courses on... Read More →
avatar for Joanna Phillips

Joanna Phillips

Senior Conservator of Time-based Media, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
Joanna Phillips is the Senior Conservator of Time-based Media at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, where she founded the media art conservation lab in 2008. At the Guggenheim, Phillips has developed and implemented new strategies for the preservation, reinstallation, and... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Objects + Archaeological Conservation) Hot Tub Time Machine: A Heated Water System for Artifact Disassembly and Treatment
The conservation of complex composite artifacts can pose a real challenge for conservators. Different material types often require dissimilar treatment methods, which can be incompatible between materials, resulting in the potential to damage one while attempting to conserve another. Therefore, when determined necessary, the decision can be made to disassemble an object, treat component parts separately, and then reassemble after treatment. This approach can be especially difficult for objects recovered from archaeological sites. The effects of the burial environment can lead to the hardening and embrittlement of organic materials and corrosion and de-alloying of metals. In both scenarios, this can result in an inability to easily and safely take part archaeological objects requiring the development of new treatment techniques and procedures. Between 1998 and 2002, over 210-tons of artifacts from the wreck site of the Civil War ironclad USS Monitor were recovered off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina by archaeologists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and US Navy divers. Many of the retrieved artifacts came from the vessel’s engine room which included five steam engines and an assortment of plumbing assemblies. Having spent nearly 140 years on the seafloor, the cast iron elements of these artifacts had de-alloyed through graphitic corrosion and now possessed the structural integrity of chalk. If that was not challenging enough, a majority of the “graphitized” objects had attached component parts which had become adhered together by rubber gaskets that had hardened having lost their elasticity over time. Early in the treatment of these artifacts, it was clear that some level of disassembly would be required so that organic, copper alloy, and iron alloy elements could receive independent treatment. However, any attempt to separate the objects into their component parts led to the cracking or breaking of the fragile “graphitized” material due to the rigidity of the gaskets. Fortunately for the conservation staff, during the application of a routine hot treatment technique used to removed concretion from copper alloy artifacts, it was discovered that a temperature of approximately 160 degrees Fahrenheit caused a previously hardened rubber gasket to soften an become pliable. This revelation led to the hypothesis that one potential solution to the disassembly conundrum could be to submerge the artifacts in a hot water bath and allow the transmission of heat to soften the gasket material; thus, limiting damage to the de-alloyed cast iron during disassembly. Additional experimentation to identify the effects of an elevated temperature on “graphitized” cast iron samples followed. Positive results from sample testing led to the design and construction of a heated water system and the development of a treatment procedure for artifact disassembly. This paper will provide an overview of the project and the operation the hot water tank apparatus. In addition, other potential treatment uses for the machine will be highlighted.

Speakers
avatar for William Hoffman

William Hoffman

Director of Conservation, The Mariners' Museum
Will Hoffman received his Master's degree in art conservation from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario in 2009 specializing in the conservation of objects. He received Bachelors’ degrees in Anthropology and Fine Arts at The State University of New York College at Buffalo in... Read More →

Co-Authors
RS

Ralph Spohn

Conservation Department Volunteer, The Mariners' Museum and Park
Ralph Spohn holds a PhD Organometallic chemistry. He worked for a major petrochemical company for 28+ years. During this time he was involved in basic and applied research. He holds 10 patents. He developed and ran this company’s research analytical lab for 5 years. He was recognized... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Paintings) Material Matters Research for Rare Wall Murals revealed at the Historic Sinclair Inn Museum
In 2014 and 2016, Conservator Ann Shaftel enacted conservation treatment of recently discovered historic walls murals behind wallpaper at the 18th c. Sinclair Inn Museum, located in a former second floor function room. At least two layers of murals were found, the first comprising Masonic Lodge fluted columns painted in the four corners of the room, which may date to the late 18th or early 19th c. Subsequent layers of painting, done over the Masonic columns, comprise panoramic views on all four walls which appear to portray the Annapolis Basin in various scenes, together with a portrait of a man in Scottish military dress, believed to be painted in the 1830s or 1840s. Later painted details of Masonic iconography have also been identified. This room has written documentation as one of the oldest known Masonic meeting places in North America. In the Conservation Treatment of the fragile and unique wall murals, the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) was requested by the Annapolis Historical Association, the local community not-for-profit owner of the museum, to research and advise on the both the wall paintings and the historic structure that contain the paintings, prior to and during the work. Based on this research and conservation related advice, an understanding and appreciation of the properties of the materials of the building and its walls was developed which informed and guided the hands-on revealing and conservation treatment of the murals. Dating back to 1710, the building itself is the second oldest extant wood frame building in Nova Scotia and Canada, which is an open-concept museum today in which layers of history are revealed, with didactic labels, audio/visual interaction and local guides. The museum building itself is informed by materials and historic research. The conservation of the wall paintings was then prefaced by site visits, sampling and materials research carried out in the laboratory by Canadian Conservation Institute painting conservators and scientists, research that continued through the two years of the Conservator’s involvement in the hands-on process. Historic preservation specialists from CCI were twice invited to the site to research and advise on preservation measures for the building itself as well as for the murals once they were revealed. The range of materials research provided by CCI was augmented by simple on-site materials research undertaken by the conservator herself before and during the conservation treatment. Augmented chemical analysis on the wallpaper and pigments was provided by Saint Mary’s University Chemistry Department, for example the existence of arsenic in a wallpaper colour we were working with. This presentation demonstrates the vital importance of materials research for conservation treatment of multi-layered fragile wall paintings contained within an historic structure. Acknowledgements: Paul Marcon, Tom Strong, James Bourdeau, Jennifer Poulin, Elizabeth Moffatt, Dominique Duguay Report CCI 2015 Sinclair Inn Report 127794 Report CCI Final Technical Report Sinclair Inn 100351 Sinclair Inn Painted Room Report CCI 11-2011, Prof. Christa Brosseau, Department of Chemistry, Saint Mary’s University. 

Speakers
avatar for John Ward

John Ward

Preservation Development Advisor, Heritage Interiors, Canadian Conservation Institute
John Ward is trained as a built heritage conservation architect who has worked with the Heritage Conservation Directorate, PWGSC, between 1996 and 2009, focusing on providing advice on federal heritage buildings including those on Parliament Hill, and since 2010 has been a Preservation... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Emma Claire Hartman

Emma Claire Hartman

Conservation Technician, The New York Public Library
Emma Hartman is currently a conservation technician at the New York Public Library. She has a BA in Chemistry and Art & the History of Art from Amherst College, and has held previous conservation internships at the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in private practice... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Photographic Materials) Color Records: Wood’s Diffraction Process of Color Photography
In 1899 American physicist Robert W. Wood invented a new three-color photographic process utilizing diffraction gratings of different grove spacing. While the process’s drawbacks, including the need for a special viewer, relegated it to the laboratory, the finished plates had the interesting property of displaying natural color without the use of pigments or dyes. The George Eastman Museum collection contains several plates from the inception of Wood’s process and more than a dozen from the brief period of commercialization in the first decade of the 20th century. For this project the history of the process was documented and variations within were recorded using photomicrography. A lens system based on original viewing apparatus was then constructed to enable the viewing and photo-documentation of all the images. As the plates rely solely on the diffraction of white light to produce color, the images captured appear essentially as they did when produced over 100 years ago.

Speakers
avatar for Zach Long

Zach Long

Conservator, George Eastman Museum
Zach Long is Assistant Conservator at the Kay R. Whitmore Conservation Center at the George Eastman Museum. He holds a Master of Arts and Certificate of Advanced Study in Art Conservation from SUNY Buffalo State and a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Photographic Illustration from the Rochester... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) Another Look at Conserving a Japanned High Chest
A growing awareness of East Asian influence in our Western world has spurred a reconsideration of many of the rare American Japanned objects from the first half of the 18th century. Among these is a sometimes celebrated high chest in the Art Museums collection at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (CWF). One of only about 15 such Japanned forms known, the bulk of the artistic merit of the cabinet lies in the decoration attributed to Robert Davis of Boston, around the 1730’s. Because the iconography of these—mainly Boston made—Japanned objects continues to be something of a mystery among many decorative arts scholars, the material make up has become the obvious necessary foundation to our understanding of such mannerist artistic expressions. In this paper the CWF high chest is presented with an eye toward understanding the original materials and design intent, as well as the reinterpretation of some of these lost and poorly restored elements. Like many of its cousins, this Japanned cabinet has seen several campaigns of restoration in its lifetime. With time, the raised ornament seems to have failed in many of these surfaces and the multiple restorations appear to have veered further from the maker’s vision with each campaign. Some attention will be paid to the choices of material and technique in the restorative process as well. The study and analyses that preceded the on-going treatment featured photography with visible light, ultra-violet, Infra-red, and x-ray. Analyses for materials identification featured X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM with EDX, and visible and fluorescence cross-section microscopy. Combining the findings from these analytical techniques has provided a fairly comprehensive picture of the materials in the surface decoration. They have also revealed a few surprises in makeup, as well as a much-needed road map for the treatment protocol. The project reflects a vital collaboration between the CWF Analytical Lab and Wood Artifacts Lab. Insights gleaned from this exploration and treatment will hopefully inspire other owners to reconsider their objects with the hope of new exhibits and a better understanding of interpretation.

Speakers
avatar for Christopher Swan

Christopher Swan

Senior Conservator, Furniture, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Chris is a furniture and wooden artifacts Conservator at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in Virginia where he has been since February, 1999, and where he also completed his third-year graduate internship, and a Getty post-graduate internship from 1994-1996. In between positions... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Kirsten Moffitt-[PA]

Kirsten Moffitt-[PA]

Conservator & Materials Analyst, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Kirsten Travers Moffitt is a conservator of painted surfaces with a specialty in the microscopy and analysis of historic finishes. She received her B.F.A. in Fine Art from the State University of New York at Purchase in 1997, and spent the next eleven years working as a decorative... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Textiles) The Use Of Paper-Based Materials For The Treatment Of Plant Fiber
The collection of the Royal Museum for Central Africa (AfricaMuseum) encompasses a broad range of objects that contain plant fibers. Those plant fibers are sensitive materials which can damage easily due to handling, light exposure and fluctuations in relative humidity and temperature. Consequently the fibers of the objects are often discolored, deformed or broken and multiple objects are actively shedding fibers or suffer from ‘baldness’.
Some plant fiber objects selected for exhibition in the renovated AfricaMuseum were too degraded to be displayed. The plant fibers were treated with paper materials in order to stabilize the objects and improve their readability. Multiple products can be grouped under the term ‘paper based Materials’, such as Japanese tissue, archival grade paper and cellulose pulp. These materials are not commonly used in textile conservation. The products have specific sets of characteristics  that can be applied to the divers treatments of objects, ranging from structural fills to thin protective coatings. Paper fibers are strong, light-weight, flexible and they can be toned with well-known conservation grade paints and dyes to mimic the appearances of the original object. The versatility of the paper based materials will be demonstrated through several treatments that are on the verge between the disciplines of textile, object and paper conservation.
This paper will focus on multiple case studies carried out by the conservation lab of the AfricaMuseum. For the treatment of two African plant fiber masks, Japanese tissue and Arbocel 400 were used for loss compensation and fiber support. Furthermore Japanese tissue has been used as a substitute for plant fiber cord, with well be documented through the treatment of a dance costume made from knotted plant fiber. Thick bands of Japanese paper also proved to be the ideal support for the support and stabilization of the woven plant fibers from a burial mat. An even thicker band of conservation grade paper paperboard was used to recreate pieces of the waistband from a skirt made out of thick plant fibers. A short overview will be given of other African objects that were treated with paper material such as drums, figurines and string instruments.
Japanese tissue, conservation grade archival paper and cellulose pulp have become staple materials in the conservation lab. The variety of the papers and cellulose pulp available is huge and their versatility can be even further adjusted by the choice of dye/paint and adhesives or through additions of other materials. Paper based materials have often proved to be the perfect fit for the treatment of the diverse collection of the AfricaMuseum; were conservation is a cross-discipline between objects, textile and paper conservation.

Speakers
avatar for Anoek De Paepe

Anoek De Paepe

Objects conservator, Royal Museum for Central Africa
Anoek De Paepe is an object conservator at the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA) in Tervuren, Belgium. As the museum is being renovated, she is currently working on the preparing the objects for the reopening of the museum at the end of 2018. In 2016 she received her master’s... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Marieke van Es

Marieke van Es

Conservator, Royal Museum for Central Africa
Marieke van Es graduated at the University of Antwerp were she received her master degree in conservation and restoration. After graduating she started to work at the Fashion Museum in Antwerp. Since 2014 she is working at the RMCA were she is preparing the object for the renovated... Read More →
SG

Siska Genbrugge

Objects Conservator, Royal Museum for Central Africa
Siska Genbrugge is objects conservator at the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA) in Tervuren, Belgium. Prior to her appointment at the RMCA she was assistant objects conservator at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA). Siska completed her MA degree in conservation as a... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Architecture) Transportation, Installation, and Conservation of the 20th c. fresco 'Haitian Massacre, 1937': Challenges, solutions, and contributions
The transportation and installation of the fresco mural Haitian Massacre, 1937, followed by its conservation, was not only challenging for the conservators but also for the engineers contracted for the project. The mural, created in 1974 by Dominican artists José Ramírez Conde and Roberto Flores, presented extensive damage from being hastily cut away from its original location and enduring three years of harsh environmental conditions after being left outdoors just covered by a tarp. Funded by the Ambassadors’ Fund for Cultural Preservation program, the project was lead by Dominican paintings conservator Hilda Abreu Utermohlen and U.S.-Argentinian Viviana Dominguez, mural conservator. The conservators took on the task of not only conserving the extensively damaged fresco, but also of advising on its preventive care, especially during its transportation from this exposed location to the Memorial Museum of the Dominican Resistance in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and subsequent installation in the museum, where it could be appreciated by the public. 
Throughout the project, the authors faced technical and logistical challenges, due to the large size and heavy weight of the fresco wall, its poor condition, the long travel route from its location to the museum, the narrow entrance to the museum, its maneuvering for affixing it to the installation base, limitations in the availability of trained professionals in mural conservation and supplies, as well as budget constrains. These challenges were ingeniously sorted out thanks to the efforts and teamwork of the conservators and engineers, resulting in the successful completion of the project. Utermohlen and Dominguez presented the examination, planning and preparation phases of the project during AIC 44th Annual Meeting in Montreal in 2015, as a work in progress. On this presentation the authors will describe the completion of the project, consisting of its transportation, installation, and conservation treatment, followed by the repair of building features and exhibit completion by the museum. Highlights include: the frame used for securing the large wall during the 14 km ride through the city and into the narrow streets of the Colonial City, and the methods used for bringing in the severely damaged wall and securing it in place. Also, they will detail the conservation treatment activities performed, including consolidation and loss compensation with local materials and techniques similar to those used by the artists. In the conclusion, they discuss and reflect on the results and benefits derived from this project, not only for the specific preservation of this artwork, but also as a tool to convey its multiple values. Moreover, the international nature of the assembled team provided not only an opportunity to collaborate hand in hand in the exchange of knowledge, but also to build bridges of understanding among the participants. 

Speakers
avatar for Viviana Dominguez-[PA]

Viviana Dominguez-[PA]

Senior Conservator, Art Conservators Lab LLC
Viviana Dominguez is a specialist in the conservation of large-scale works of art on public places, wall paintings, and easel paintings. She has worked in the field since 1983, preserving national and monuments, and international works. She has broad experience in a large variety... Read More →
avatar for Hilda Abreu Utermohlen-[Fellow]

Hilda Abreu Utermohlen-[Fellow]

Executive Director, Hilab
Hilda is founder and Executive Director of Hilab, a private art conservation firm in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. She has 28 years of experience working in the treatment of paintings and a wide range of art conservation services and consultations in her country and the Caribbean... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Book and Paper) John Singer Sargent: New insights into his watercolor materials and techniques
As imaging technology continues to be developed in the service of material identification and mapping, long-standing assumptions about artists’ media and processes can finally be tested. Analytical methods such as GC-MS, SERS, XRF mapping, and hyperspectral imaging represent opportunities to breath exciting new life into exhibitions of works by artists who have become perennial favorites. John Singer Sargent is one such artist on whom numerous tomes have been written and about whom it may seem there is nothing more to say. This talk will contradict that notion by presenting new insights into Sargent’s materials based on the coordination of close visual observation, scholarship, and material analysis using established scientific technqiues as well as techniques that have only recently become available such as hyperspectral imaging and macro-XRF mapping. The present exhibition John Singer Sargent and Chicago’s Gilded Age afforded the opportunity to conduct a technical study of eleven of Sargent’s watercolors at the Art Institute of Chicago. Though the sample set is small for such a prolific artist, the works span nearly forty years of the artist’s watercolor production. He sustained passion for the medium throughout his life and, as analysis revealed, he sometimes experimented by altering his media. These discoveries were made possible through collaboration between curators, conservators, and scientists who are innovators in fields ranging from computer science to spectroscopy. They stress the importance of establishing a scientific basis for claims made about artists’ processes, even if they originate from primary and secondary sources. This information adds to the extensive body of technical work that has already been published on the largest American collections of Sargent’s watercolors, namely those at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the Brooklyn Museum of Art, and the Worcester Museum.

Speakers
avatar for Francesca Casadio

Francesca Casadio

Andrew W. Mellon Senior Conservation Scientist and Co-director NU-ACCESS, The Art Institute of Chicago and Northwestern University
Francesca Casadio joined the Art Institute of Chicago in 2003 to establish and direct a state of the art conservation science laboratory. In January 2018, she will assume the post of Executive Director of Conservation and Science in the same institution. Dr. Casadio has also established... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Agnese Babini

Agnese Babini

Visiting Graduate Student, NU-ACCESS, Northwestern University
Agnese Babini is a graduate student in Science for Conservation from the University of Bologna. She received her B.S in Technologies for Conservation of Cultural Heritage at the University of Bologna, with a thesis on the proposal of analytical protocols for the authentication... Read More →
avatar for Veronica Biolcati

Veronica Biolcati

intern, Technical Studies Research Laboratory, Getty Conservation Institute
Veronica Biolcati is an intern at the Technical Studies Research Laboratory of the Getty Conservation Institute. Her research interests include the investigation of the materials and techniques used for painting, the application of new methods and technologies for the scientific study... Read More →
avatar for Mary Broadway

Mary Broadway

Associate Paper Conservator, Art Institute of Chicago
Mary Broadway is the Associate paper conservator at the Art Institute of Chicago Additional Co-authors include: Mary Broadway, Veronica Biolcati, Ken Sutherland, Francesca Casadio, Emeline Pouyet, Agnese Babini, Gianluca Pastorelli, Danielle Duggins, Marc Walton
DD

Danielle Duggins

Graduate Student, Materials Science and Engineering, NU-ACCESS, Northwestern University
Danielle is a PhD student in Materials Science & Engineering at Northwestern and joined NU-ACCESS in August of 2017. Her research is focused on coupling optical coherence tomography and hyperspectral measurements for the identification of paint pigments. She received her BS in Physics... Read More →
avatar for Gianluca Pastorelli

Gianluca Pastorelli

Postdoctoral Fellow, Northwestern/ARTIC Center for Scientific Studies in the Arts
avatar for Emeline Pouyet

Emeline Pouyet

Post doctoral fellow, Northwestern University/Art Institute of Chicago
Emeline Pouyet is a post-doctoral fellow at the NU-ACCESS center (Chicago, U.S.A). She received her M.S. degree in Archaeometry in 2010 and completed her Ph.D. studies in 2014 at the ID21 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France). Her activities focused... Read More →
KS

Ken Sutherland

Conservation Scientist, Art Institute of Chicago
Ken Sutherland is a scientist in the Department of Conservation and Science at the Art Institute of Chicago. He held previous positions as scientist in the Conservation Department of the Philadelphia Museum of Art and Research Fellow in the Scientific Research Department of the National... Read More →
avatar for Marc Sebastian Walton

Marc Sebastian Walton

Co-Director, Research Professor, Center for Scientific Studies in the Arts
Marc Walton joined the Northwestern University / Art Institute of Chicago Center for Scientific Studies in the Arts in 2013 as its inaugural Senior Scientist and as a Research Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University. In January of 2018, he was appointed... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston
  • Specialty Tracks Book and Paper
  • Cost Type Included with registration
  • Abstract ID 13827
  • Authors (in order) Mary Broadway, Veronica Biolcati, Ken Sutherland, Francesca Casadio, Emeline Pouyet, Agnese Babini, Gianluca Pastorelli, Danielle Duggins, Marc Walton

11:00am

(Collection Care) Evaluating the Potential of A-D Strips for Assessing the Safety of Materials for Museum Objects
This presentation will deliver the results of experiments designed to evaluate how A-D Strips, originally developed to quantify the condition of cellulose acetate film, can be applied to detecting other forms of acidic off-gassing as well. Organic carbonyls are found in a variety of materials including adhesives, wood and laminates, flooring, paints, and textiles used in the storage, display, and transport of objects. Acetic and formic acids are believed to be the primary risks to cultural heritage materials from organic carbonyl pollutants, whether directly emitted from a source or oxidized from the aldehyde forms acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. These pollutants are particularly damaging to metals such as lead and copper and calcareous materials (in the form of Byne’s Disease), but can also affect a range of other acid-sensitive materials.

Monitoring for the presence of organic carbonyls is currently limited because the methods for doing so (primarily diffusion tubes) can be expensive to employ. A-D Strips though provide a relatively quick, easy, and inexpensive way and because of this, they have been used in a wide variety of applications: for monitoring of collections, to check the effectiveness of mitigation measures, to evaluate housing seals, and to confirm whether or not products are off-gassing in a version of an Oddy-like test.

In order to use the strips informatively where other acids aside from acetic are present, experiments will be conducted to develop a scale describing the response of the strip to the presence of formic acid. While A-D Strips will continue to react in the presence of any acid so that it will not be possible to identify whether the color changes are due to acetic, formic, or another acid, experiments into their reaction to formic acid will help to add to our scientific understanding of how the strips should be applied in contexts where another organic carbonyl is the concern. With additional testing, this tool can be appropriately used to perform preliminary screening of materials to be used in collection spaces as a complementary procedure to Oddy testing, as well as potentially inform their utilization in a broader range of applications for collections degradation and pollutant monitoring. 

Speakers
KM

Kelly McCauley Krish

Preventive Conservation Specialist, Image Permanence Institute
Kelly McCauley Krish, Preventive Conservation Specialist, joined IPI in May 2016 as part of the environmental management consulting team and to provide other preventive services. Kelly earned her MS in Art Conservation from the Winterthur- University of Delaware Program and a BA in... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Jean-Louis Bigourdan

Jean-Louis Bigourdan

Senior Research Scientist, Image Permanence Institute, Rochester Institute of Technology
Jean-Louis Bigourdan is a senior research scientist at the Image Permanence Institute (IPI), Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, USA. He has a background in Chemistry, photography and conservation of photographic materials. He received his diploma in the conservation... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Electronic Media) Revealing Hidden Processes: Instrumentation and Reverse Engineering in the Conservation of Software-based Art
Software-based artworks possess a curious material status. While rooted in bits stored on a physical medium, they can also be considered performative and ephemeral in that the tangible elements of such works are created on-the-fly when the software is executed. When realised, the artwork is experienced primarily in relation to the experiential elements of the performance (i.e. its inputs and outputs). However, the conservator must also understand the underlying mechanism of code being processed in a technical environment: a challenge which has required the development of new analytical approaches. Source code analysis provides one means of addressing this layer, and has been demonstrated to be a powerful approach to understanding software programs through the close study of the code they were written in. However, this approach might not be suitable in all scenarios. While source code relates closely to the compiled software, the process of transformation involved means that equivalence between the two is not always direct or clear. Where source code presents high levels of complexity, it may not be possible (or even necessary) to find the resources to carry out in-depth source code analysis. In a worst case scenario, source code is simply missing or inaccessible. Furthermore, elements of performance linked to the software's interaction with its technical environment can often not be completely understood or measured through source code alone. In this paper, I explore methods that intercept the software performance and directly address the compiled software in order to derive useful conservation information. In these cases analytical and interrogative approaches from software engineering may be repurposed to reveal hidden computational processes, profile performance, log events and decompile code. Careful analysis of information gathered can yield important insights for conservation, including elucidating complex dependencies, revealing unclear program behaviours and ensuring that significant characteristics of the software performance can be maintained. This paper will report on the application of these approaches to software-based artworks from the Tate collection. In doing so I reach some overarching conclusions regarding the potential and limitations of these novel methods in relation to existing approaches, and argue for their place in the toolbox of the time-based media conservator.

Speakers
avatar for Tom Ensom

Tom Ensom

Digital Conservator, Tate / King's College London
Tom Ensom is a London-based digital conservator, and is currently in the final stages of his PhD at King's College London, which has been undertaken in collaboration with Tate. His PhD research has developed approaches to the analysis, description and representation of software-based... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Objects + Archaeological Conservation) ‘All That Is Gold Does Not Glitter’: Developing Guidelines for the Recovery of Tin-plate on Mineralized Archaeological Iron through Material Analysis
X-radiographs are important guides for the air abrasive cleaning of archaeological iron. What happens then when an important feature, such as a finishing surface, recorded by an x-radiograph fails to materialize? Is this merely human error on the part of the conservator? Can the x-radiographic signatures of these surfaces be caused by other factors? Or have residual finishing surfaces simply degraded past the point of un-assisted visual detection? This presentation will discuss how the combination of spectral imaging and elemental analysis can contribute to x-radiographic interpretations of non-ferrous finishing surfaces on archaeological iron and inform decisions as to the practical recovery of such surfaces. Tinned surfaces are fairly ubiquitous in the archaeological record and are frequently documented in x-radiographs. Actual recovery of these surfaces, however, is under-reported in academic literature. Due to the nature of tin corrosion and its products, tin-plate is often assumed to be a visually discrete, recoverable surface. This is an assumption seemingly supported by the presence of distinct areas of differential density known as ‘tinning lines’ on x-radiographs. However, the extent to which these lines reflect the actual condition of the underlying tinned surface and can predict the success of practical recovery is not well documented. This is especially true in the context of highly mineralized artifacts in which metallic tin may no longer exist. The aim of this project is to positively identify and characterize presumptive tinning surfaces on a highly-mineralized iron artifact using SEM-BEI imaging and SEM-EDX elemental analysis to corroborate x-radiographic and optical microscopy evidence of tinning. This project uses an archaeological wrought iron key dating from the late medieval period of the deserted English village of West Whelpington as its subject. Previous conservation indicates that the artifact was likely tinned. The validity of this identification is tested through a) producing an array of x-radiographs that explore variables, such as penetrative power, exposure time and geometry to confirm the presence of tinning lines, b) performing investigative cleaning via air abrasion to test recoverability of the layer based on x-radiographs, and c) sectioning the key and using spectral analysis techniques to better chemically and physically describe and corroborate the presumptive finishing surface. The presentation will also use SEM micrographs and SEM-EDX mapping to illustrate the distribution of highly mineralized tin layers in the corrosion matrix and discuss the extent to which these morphological changes can be detected in x-radiographs and used as signifiers of surface condition. Ultimately, this will prompt commentary as to what constitutes a recoverable surface and what factors a conservator will need to take into account, such as, stakeholders, work constraints, and artifact ‘value’, etc. when making decisions about whether or not to attempt recovery of a finishing surface that is analytically distinct but not necessarily visually or physically identifiable. Much like “all that is gold does not glitter” this paper will demonstrate that not all things of value are strictly material.

Speakers
avatar for Michelle Crepeau

Michelle Crepeau

Conservator, North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources
Michelle Crepeau is a Master's degree recipient recently returned from studying abroad at Cardiff University, Wales, following the completion of an MSc. in Conservation Practice with a focus on archaeological and object conservation. She has additional undergraduate qualifications... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Nicola Emmerson

Nicola Emmerson

Lecturer in Conservation, Cardiff University, School of History, Archaeology and Religion
avatar for David Watkinson

David Watkinson

Professor (Conservation)/ Deputy Head of School, School of History, Archaeology and Religion, Cardiff University

Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Paintings) An Obscured Beauty: analysis and treatment of "Dancing Girl" by Muhammad Baqir
In 2015 The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston acquired Muhammad Baqir's "Dancing Girl" dated 1192 AH (1778 AD), their first Islamic easel painting. While Baqir is primarily known for his miniature painting, this oil on canvas work is roughly 59 inches tall, 31 inches wide, with an arched top, and features a 3/4 size portrait of a female dancer. The subject is dressed in a patterned skirt with jeweled bodice holding castanets in both hands, with one arm raised above her head. She stands before an open window with a typical landscape behind and a bowl of pears to the side. Baqir was one of the first Persian painters to incorporate European motifs and techniques into his works, and his use of perspective in particular shows the intersection between West and East. Large canvas paintings are rare for this late Zand period and few of them have been studied in depth. As the techniques and materials of miniature painting do not always translate to larger works, analysis of Baqir's materials and methods in this painting compared to his smaller compositions contributes to a greater understanding of Persian oil painting in general. Immediately after acquisition research on the painting began to aid in the overall treatment. The painting has been examined with UVF and IRR imaging along with X-radiographs. Analysis was performed using XRF and FTIR, dispersed and cross sectional samples including fiber identification of the canvas, as well as SEM-EDX. The work has been lined and treated at least twice in the past, although no conservation records are extant. Analysis shows several layers of shellac applied throughout the years and it is speculated the painting had never before been thoroughly cleaned. Overall the surface exhibited a thick plastic appearance detracting from its dynamic qualities. Additionally the severe yellowing of the coating distorted the color relationships of the composition and obscured any subtleties of shading. Cleaning the painting was undertaken with caution as several areas contain vermillion, which proved to be sensitive to any solvents strong enough to solubilize the shellac. The jeweled decorations in the dancer's costume are composed of metal flakes with painted details on top. These areas are likewise extremely delicate and could not be cleaned with solvents. The cleaning therefore consisted of two phases. First using appropriate organic solvents in any non-sensitive areas, then the remainder of the painting was slowly cleaned mechanically. The painstaking cleaning revealed beautiful delicacies in the technique and restored much of the original aesthetic. Older campaigns of retouching and over-painting were also removed and new compensation was completed in a more discreet manner. The investigation and treatment of "Dancing Girl" provided important insights into the painting materials and techniques of the late Zand/early Qajar period as well as several practical methodologies for their continued preservation. The knowledge gained from this project regarding larger Persian oil paintings on canvas is an invaluable addition to Western conservation circles.

Speakers
avatar for Melissa Gardner

Melissa Gardner

Conservator, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Melissa Gardner is the Associate Conservator of Paintings at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston where she has worked for the past seven years in various roles.She is a graduate of the Conservation Center, IFA NYU primarily specializing in Old Master easel paintings. During her time... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr. Corina E. Rogge-[PA]

Dr. Corina E. Rogge-[PA]

Andrew W. Mellon Research Scientist, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Corina E. Rogge is the Andrew W. Mellon Research Scientist at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston and the Menil Collection. She earned a B.A. in chemistry from Bryn Mawr College, a Ph.D. in Chemistry from Yale University and held postdoctoral positions at the University of Wisconsin-Madison... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Photographic Materials) The Chemistry of Digital Fine Art Paper Yellowing: A Comparative Case Study of Moab Entrada Rag Natural 300gsm and Harman Inkjet Glossy Art Fibre Warmtone by Hahnemühle
The yellowing of inkjet papers is a documented problem for cultural institutions and the conservation community. This study investigated two commercially available inkjet papers that had yellowed naturally under different conditions. A double-coated fine art paper Moab Entrada Natural 300gsm, developed a yellow stain within one year of printing, after unprotected exposure to light and atmospheric pollutants in a home environment. A roll of Harman Inkjet glossy fine art fibre warmtone paper by Hahnemühle yellowed when the packaging material, a polyethylene bag, was in contact with the paper during shipping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and UV-VIS reflection measurements were used to characterize the naturally yellowed papers. Attempts were also made to purposefully drive the yellowing reactions in fresh samples of these papers. Fresh paper samples were exposed separately to short wave UV light, long wave UV light, and NO₂ gas (to simulate atmospheric pollution). The SEM of the cross sectioned papers revealed complex microstructure in the coatings of the papers. Chemical analyses suggest that neither UV nor NO₂ exposure alone were the sole reason of the naturally yellowed paper. The pattern of chemical changes from XPS line scans of cross sections of the naturally yellowed paper suggested that the cause of the yellowing was diffusing into the paper making atmospheric pollutants a more likely cause. We suggest that the increased porosity of inkjet papers may have made them more susceptible to oxidizing gases in atmospheric pollution or outgassing from packaging materials as compared to more traditional paper formulations.

Speakers
avatar for Monique C. Fischer-[Fellow]

Monique C. Fischer-[Fellow]

Senior Photograph Conservator, Northeast Document Conservation Center
Monique C. Fischer is the senior photograph conservator at the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NEDCC) in Andover, MA.  She holds a master’s degree in art conservation from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Museum, and a bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Smith College... Read More →

Co-Authors
SB

Savannah Butler

Student, Harvard University Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
avatar for Carew Giberson Chen

Carew Giberson Chen

Student, Harvard University Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
Student at Harvard University Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology.
avatar for Arthur McClelland

Arthur McClelland

Principal Scientist, Harvard University - Center for Nanoscale Systems
Arthur McClelland received his PhD in applied physics from the University of Michigan in 2009. He has worked at the Center for Nanoscale Systems at Harvard University since 2011 running the optical spectroscopy laboratory.
avatar for Nina Shevzov Zebrun

Nina Shevzov Zebrun

Student, Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
VZ

Vanya Zvonar

Student, Harvard University Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Textiles) The Hidden Codex, A discussion of loss of cultural heritage of the history and religion of indigenous people and its impact on Mesoamerican studies through the examination of a possible newly discovered original Mixtec codex.
Kelly Gross, Midwestern Epigraphic Society Editor, 5-year AIC Member. The problem is that historically significant artifacts are being ignored and their cultural heritage lost. This occurs largely because of the difficulty some, but not all, experts have in recognizing the value in something new or undiscovered. The Hidden Codex is a case in point. This artifact is a single work on plaster and fiber mat in vivid color likely by a single artist and measures 122 cm by 30.5cm. It has been well researched. Carbon dated at 1650 C E, the codex pigments were made from all natural materials in the La Mixteca region of Oaxaca in Mexico. Previously unknown, it is not one of the only eight known Mixtec codex artifacts in the world but instead represents the only Mixtec divinatory almanac, referred to as a Tonalamatl, now known to exist. It portrays five deities and is calendrical in nature with borders of the traditional 13- day pictorial sequencing as seen in some of the other 8 known Mixtec codex examples. But unlike the others it portrays the rituals and festivals of the indigenous religion. Normally other researchers would continue to study and duplicate the findings. Instead, what is happening is that a cultural history is being lost in an attempt to enforce a traditional orthodoxy: That no new codex artifacts can be discovered. Any attempts to contradict this thinking are met with claims from the archeology establishment that the authors are promoting reproductions or forgeries. This paper explores the Hidden Codex research on both sides and presents an objective picture including provenance documents of source location and history. Insight is provided into the codex’s pictorial use of calendar-based events and rituals on a cultural basis. Finally, the results of EDS and FTIR analytical testing are presented along with pigment photomicrographs and a discussion of the indigenous construction and its importance historically. The significance of this research is that it presents what could possibly be the only known codex that was never in the hands of the Spanish. This paper also presents the possibility that the indigenous people continued to practice their religion under Spanish occupation, contrary to popular opinion.

Speakers
avatar for Kelly H. Gross

Kelly H. Gross

Editor, Midwestern Epigraphic Society
Kelly H. Gross is a five year AIC member, has served as The Midwestern Epigraphic Society Newsletter editor, and has been involved in numerous technical research projects and assignments. Through his consulting work Mr Gross has been fortunate to engage with professionals in education... Read More →

Co-Authors
LJ

Loren Jeffries

Research analyst, Hidden Codex Properties, LLC
Roger Sexton and Loren Jeffries have both authored books on the subject of ancient mesoamerican artifacts and culture and are founding members of the Midwetern Epigraphic Society. Mr Jeffries book,"The Sacred Count: The Fractal Calendar of Ancient Meso-America" – November 20, 2016... Read More →
avatar for Roger Sexton

Roger Sexton

Research analyst, Hidden Codex Properties, LLC
Roger Sexton and Loren Jeffries have both authored books on the subject of ancient mesoamerican artifacts and culture and are founding members of the Midwetern Epigraphic Society. Mr Jeffries book,"The Sacred Count: The Fractal Calendar of Ancient Meso-America" – November 20, 2016... Read More →

Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Research and Technical Studies + Wooden Artifacts) Bringing back color: Retouching faded furniture with colored light
Throughout the centuries organic colorants, both from natural and synthetic origin, were used to stain wood. This application lead to vivid colored objects of which the wood texture is still visible. Colorants can be applied over the complete surface of an object or used especially for marquetry, resulting in multi-colored objects. In addition to the coloring of wood, the natural color of unstained wood plays also an important role in the overall appearance of furniture. The main disadvantage of the use of organic colorants is the fact that they can severely fade in time, this is also true for the natural color of wood. As a consequence, the original appearance is lost to such extent that many museum visitors are not even aware of the fact that numerous pieces of furniture were originally colored; the visitors appreciate the natural, discolored wood and knowledge of how these objects originally looked like is sometimes completely ignored. To obtain knowledge about the original appearance is a great challenge, and it is good to realize that we will never be able to get the ‘exact’ colors right. However, more insight is required to be able to come as close as possible to the original intention of the makers of these objects. To revive this knowledge is only possible with an integrated approach. With this presentation, this integrated approach will be discussed. The research involves chemical analysis of the faded material, which is a challenge on its own, to identify the colorants used. The next step is the study of historical recipes and the creation of reconstructions (small mock-ups) based on these recipes to obtain more knowledge of the range of colors possible with the materials used. Degradation research is carried out on some of these colorants to understand their behavior. Finally, faded pieces of furniture were retouched using colored light, projecting a computer image via a beamer on the object in which the faded colors were revived. Although a promising technique, with possibilities to show these original vibrant objects to a large audience, questions arise about the accuracy of the reconstructed colors and the possible change in artistic value. However, it stimulates the discussion between curators, conservators and scientists about the possibilities and limitation of this technique and how to present the objects to the museum audience. Two case studies will be discussed. A group of objects designed by the Dutch architect Piet Kramer in the 1930’s which were originally stained with brilliant synthetic dyes and are now heavily discolored were accurately examined and these results will be presented. In addition, preliminary results will be discussed about the retouching of a much more complicated 18th century commode created by Andries Bongen.

Speakers
avatar for Prof. Dr. Maarten R. van Bommel

Prof. Dr. Maarten R. van Bommel

Professor of Conservation Science, University of Amsterdam, conservation and restoration of cultural heritage
Maarten van Bommel is professor of conservation science at the university of Amsterdam, were he held a position both at the faculty of Humanities and the faculty of Science. He is chair of the section conservation and restoration of cultural heritage were future conservators / restorers... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Federica van Adrichem

Federica van Adrichem

Trainee in conservation and restoration of cultural heritage, University of Amsterdam
JB

Jaap Boonstra

Conservator wood and furniture, Amsterdam museum

Friday June 1, 2018 11:00am - 12:00pm
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Objects + Archaeological Conservation) Measuring the burial microenvironment on an archaeological site as an aid to the conservation management of artifacts in the museum
Preliminary results will be presented from an in-situ assessment of the chemical microenvironment of an Early Bronze Age site in Central Anatolia. The work involved assessing the pH, the redox potential and chloride ion activity and was carried out in August 2017 on the soil of the Kaman-Kalehöyük excavation site in Turkey of the Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology to ascertain the changes that occur in the burial and post excavation environment. A chloride ion electrode, pH meter, and corrosion meters with appropriate reference electrodes and calibrating materials were used. Surface chloride and pH mapping was carried out on excavated copper alloy objects and correlated with the archaeological profiles and records. Initial measurements indicate that it will be possible to prepare a degradation and conservation index as part of a mechanism to determine on a systematic basis corrosion behavior and which objects are in greatest need of conservation intervention. Treatment priority score cards will be prepared based on the significance and conservation needs assessments.

Speakers
avatar for Ian D. MacLeod

Ian D. MacLeod

Fellow, Western Australian Maritime Museum
Ian D. MacLeod completed his studies at the University of Melbourne in 1974 and did post-doctoral work at the University of Glasgow (Scotland) and Murdoch University (Perth, Australia). From 1978 he worked for the conservation department at the Western Australian Museum and developed... Read More →
avatar for Alice Boccia Paterakis

Alice Boccia Paterakis

Director of Conservation, Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology
A MAC graduate of the Queen’s University conservation program, Alice received her PhD in conservation from the Institute of Archaeology, University College London, in 2011. She served as Director of Conservation for the Athenian Agora of the American School of Classical Studies... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 11:30am - 11:45am
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Architecture) Analyzing Spanish colonial pigment utilizing sophisticated technology: The excitement and the obstacle in the discoveries
Traditional conservation techniques first uncovered the existence of Spanish colonial era frescoes on the interior walls of the Sacristy, in the Alamo Church, eighteen years ago. The stencil designs discovered encompass the entire room; at wainscot level, frieze band above entry doors, and along the arches of walls. The universal conservation lab techniques and analysis provided some of the answers however, there is still much to learn about the wall art in the Sacristy. Recently, conservation work in the Sacristy began and more evident questions arose; one inquiry: Is there another way of analyzing the pigment without removal? The answer is to this question is yes, by utilizing traditional analysis and state of the art technology. Through the use of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), the pigments that remained on the walls in the Sacristy were sampled and characteristic elements were identified. The 2000 paint analysis report identified four Spanish colonial tinted limewashes. The recent utilization of the pXRF analysis report, identified three unknown Spanish colonial tinted limewashes and metal leaf with high levels of copper. In addition to the pXRF, a scanning electron microscope, SEM with EDS capabilities was also used on selected sampled fragments. Elemental maps confirm the identification of vermillion (HgS). This advanced technology helps guide conservation efforts and leaves the microscopic historic elements intact. A second inquiry transpired: How do we visually see the invisible design elements? By employing multi-spectral imaging with ultraviolet florescence technical photography, 3-D photographic techniques: Reflectance Transformational Imaging (RTI) and DSLR photogrammetry were also a part of this project. The multi-spectral imaging documented invisible design elements, important application techniques; “pouncing”, “outlining”, and “block filling”. The multi-spectral imaging created high-resolution images along with 3-D models and photo mosaics. A third inquiry loomed: Why the sophisticated equipment used did not determine the shapes of areas where high levels of Lead (Pb) exist at the “tips” of an invisible floral design? The floral designs are located symmetrically on the original walls. The invisible floral designs contain an urn painted with ochre, reds and copper green. The shape of the urn is unknown. The project utilizing multi-spectral imaging and portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy results were exciting, but some of the unknown Spanish colonial designs remain a mystery. Is there a technology that can solve the mysteries in the Sacristy at the Alamo?

Speakers
avatar for Pamela Rosser-[PA]

Pamela Rosser-[PA]

Conservator, The Alamo
Pamela Jary Rosser PA AIC is native to San Antonio. She grew up in the art and architecture world. She graduated with a degree in fine art and a minor in art history from the University of Incarnate Word. She studied art history in Italy and is a Professional Associate of the American... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Book and Paper) Multi Spectral Imaging and the Digitization of the Dead Sea Scrolls
The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS)in the Judean seventy years ago, is considered one of the greatest archaeological discoveries in modern times. The scrolls were either written or copied in the Land of Israel between 250 BCE and 68 CE. They represent the oldest written record of the Old Testament, and contain the earliest copies of every book of the Bible, except one. This “Ancient Library” allows us to peer into a period, 2000 years ago, pivotal to both Judaism and Christianity. Thanks to these remarkable texts, our knowledge concerning the origins of Judaism and early Christianity has been greatly enriched. Issues of publication, conservation, preservation and documentation of the DSS have concerned both scholars and conservators ever since the scrolls’ discovery. The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), first embarked on this ambitious project of multi spectral imaging as yet another conservation effort, but it very soon it evolved into an overall project that is gradually changing DSS research environment and methodology. I will begin with a general overview presenting a short historical assessment of the state of preservation and documentation of the scrolls and their availability to the public and to the scholarly community before this project began. The presentation will discuss in depth the technology and sciences involved in the imaging, the development of a noninvasive monitoring system based on the multi spectral images for following the state of preservation of the scrolls; the creation of highest-quality color images and advanced near infra-red images for public and scholarly use; the online digital library, open access, computer generated tools, algorithms, virtual work-spaces, and new studies resulting from these best possible images. Finally, I shall briefly survey future objectives and challenges we still face. The Dead Sea Scrolls are a universal cultural heritage. As such, it is our duty to safeguard and preserve them for future generations while sharing them with the public and scholarly community worldwide.

Speakers
avatar for Ashlyn Oprescu

Ashlyn Oprescu

Conservator, Israel Antiquities Authority



Friday June 1, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Collection Care) Collaborative Project Between Museums - The Case Study of The National Museum of Taiwan Literature and Zhong Lihe Memorial Institute
In 2017,The National Museum of Taiwan Literature (NMTL) began a new project that focuses on preserving the collections of local museums by providing both collections management and preventative conservation education. The local museum staff will have the ability to preserve their collection independently through this project. The project has produced trilateral benefits on national museums, local museums and the public. The NMTL is the first national literary museum in Taiwan that works toward displaying the history of Taiwan literature and teaching civilians about their own historical literature. As the first official literary museum, the NMTL has the responsibility responsibility to assist and guide other local literary museums in developing and preserving Taiwan literature. The Zhong Lihe Memorial Institute ( ZLMI) is the first unofficial local literary museum established by a private legal institute, which occupies an important position in the field of Taiwan literature. The ZLMI houses not only the collections of significant Taiwanese authors, but specifically the collections of its namesake, Zhong Lihe. The collections provide evidence of Taiwan literary history and its developments. However, shortage of funds and lack of professional knowledge has left a gap in collections care. Their collections suffered because of an unsuitable storage environment and resource shortages. Due to this situation and the historic significance of the collection, the NMTL decided to use its greater funds and large professional staff to assist them in preserving their collections. During this project, we helped ZLMI to improve staff abilities in collection management by contributing our resources, such as professional knowledge, experiences and resources of preservation. We planned a series of programs helping them to develop collection management skills including improving their own collection system, teaching preservation and conservation knowledge, and improving the museum environment. Furthermore, the new collection system will now allow the staff to know the condition and the total amount of their objects. Secondly, we held education seminars to give local museum staff basic ideas about preservative conservation. Last but not least, we built a database of the ZLMI collection by digitally recording whole script collections. As a result the collections can be promoted and applied for research and education across Taiwan. The results show unparalleled success. Now the ZLMI has a comprehensive collection system. In addition, the staff have improved professional skills and management abilities to preserve collections. As for the NMTL, we now have access to the research resource of the ZLMI digital database collection. The case of collaboration with ZLMI is the first stage for a large-scale collaborative project, and the success of the ZLMI collaboration will be used to enact similar methods to assist other local literary museums in the future. As a result, NMTL can not only establish long-term collaborative partnership between NMTL and local museums, but also aid in the preservation of Taiwan’s literary history.

Speakers
JJ

Jen Jung Ku

Senior Paper Conservator, National Museum of Taiwan Literature
Jen Jung Ku received a MA in paper conservation from the Tainan National University of the Arts Tainan National University of the Arts (2010). She undertook advanced internships and additional training at the George Eastman House and Library and Archives Canada .She is presently senior... Read More →
avatar for Chi-Chun Lin

Chi-Chun Lin

Object conservator, YL Conservation Studio
Chi-Chun Lin has worked an assistant conservator at National Museum of Taiwan Literature (NMTL) since 2015. She has managed three projects assisting museum staffs in NMTL to do object catalogue and management. In 2013, the Staffordshire Hoard Conservation team at the Birmingham Museum... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Electronic Media) Establishing Preservation Practices for Net Art and App-Based Works
Over the years, efforts by libraries, archives, and museums to incorporate digital media artworks into their collections has grown increasingly complex. The vast amount of born-digital art output is changing traditional approaches to archiving, collection building, and preservation. The National Digital Stewardship Residency for Art Information (NDSR Art) is an IMLS-funded initiative created to address the challenges of digital preservation while fostering career development for new professionals. Coral Salomón is the NDSR Art resident at the University of Pennsylvania’s Fisher Fine Arts Library where she is focusing on the preservation of arts-related apps and websites, as well as providing repository recommendations for born-digital artworks. During this presentation, Coral will highlight some of the outcomes of her residency, focusing specifically on app and website preservation. She will discuss tools, strategies, and resources needed to capture web- and app- based art. The presentation will include challenges encountered, lessons learned, and “real world” applications of the recommended processes. It will also cover strategies for communicating the importance of preserving and providing access to this content to potential collaborators such as curators, gallery owners, and artists. This session is intended for individuals beginning to establish a web archiving program at their institutions, who are currently preserving this type of dynamic and ephemeral content, or that are interested in a walk-through to this subject matter.

Speakers
avatar for Coral Salomón

Coral Salomón

National Digital Stewardship Resident in Art Information, University of Pennsylvania
Coral is the NDSR Art Resident at the University of Pennsylvania. She is exploring preservation issues surrounding born-digital art and art resources. Coral is a MLIS grad from Mayagüez, PR. Previously, she worked at the Frick Art Reference Library and at the Center for Puerto Rican... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Paintings) Symbol, Record, Object: Treating the many facets of two Qajar Iran imperial portraits
This paper discusses the treatment of two life-size portrait paintings in the collection of The Smithsonian Institution, Sackler Gallery of Art: the 1859 three-quarter length portrait of Prince Jalal al-Din, son of Fath Ali Shah by Abu’l Hasan Ghaffari, and the 1915 full-length painting of Ahmad Shah and his Cabinet by Ustad Assadallah al-Husayni Naqqash-bashi. Both paintings are powerful examples of how Iranian artists responded to the influences of Western portraiture while maintaining a unique sense of stylized line and pattern. Each painting required structural and cosmetic treatment, with treatment goals including reversing extensive previous treatment and preparing the painting for exhibition. As symbols of the importance of these men, the portrait of Prince Jalal al-Din is unique in the artist’s exceptional rendering and adherence to a very traditional 19th century portrait presentation, while the group portrait of Ahmad Shah, standing in front of his brother and ten members of his cabinet, was clearly influenced by contemporary photographs. Historical record was further presented in Ahmad Shah’s painting by the later addition of inscriptions identifying the men, and the replacement of the original dated artist’s signature at the bottom of the image. Examination and treatment of Ahmad Shah’s painting sought to place these inscriptions in context with other restorations, and to inpaint damages to balance visual unity of the image with the evidence of the painting as historical document. The materials and construction of each painting also greatly influenced the recent conservation treatments. The earlier portrait of Prince Jalal al-Din had a very traditional, Western painting construction of stretched, pre-primed linen canvas. Later restorations followed with lining and large areas of fill and restoration. Although the present treatment reversed most of the earlier treatment, it still followed a traditional path of re-lining, filling and inpainting. The later painting of Ahmad Shah had a simpler, less conventional construction, and was painted on seamed sections of thin, cotton fabric with no preparatory ground. Later repairs included small local patches and isolated restorations more in keeping with a hanging textile than a traditional stretched painting. The present treatment included a modified padded panel/stretcher support which would allow an easel painting presentation while retaining the irregularities of the seamed support fabric. Both treatments were informed by the accumulated histories of the paintings and the desire to respectfully preserve their very different constructions while enabling the vitality of the subjects to be present to the viewer.

Speakers
avatar for Nancy R. Pollak

Nancy R. Pollak

Conservator, Art Care Associates
Nancy Pollak is a 1991 MS Graduate of the Winterthur / University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation where she majored in painting conservation with a special emphasis in painted textiles. She also holds a BFA in painting from Seton Hill College. In 1996 she established her private... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

12:00pm

(Book and Paper) 2018 Book and Paper Wiki Discussion Session
The Book and Paper Wiki is a collaborative knowledge base of conservation techniques that belongs to all of us. Please come to the 2018 Book and Paper Wiki Discussion Session to keep updated about its progress. We will acknowledge the people who have made contributions, demonstrate new and improved Wiki pages, and gather suggestions for improvement on the Drying and Flattening chapter. Attendees will be invited to comment what the Wiki should focus on in 2018-2019.

The 2017 Book and Paper Wiki Discussion Session in Chicago provided energy, inclusion, and focus to the continuing effort to make the Wiki as relevant as possible. We discussed reformatting and updating chapters; how to deal with outdated (historical) treatments, materials, and terminology; and the importance of including images and videos. With the help of a group of volunteers, we have been following through on your input with great success.

This has been the best year yet for the Book and Paper Wiki.  Let's keep the momentum going. The feedback that we receive during these sessions is invaluable in planning for the future of the Book and Paper Wiki and maintaining an engaged and active membership.

Speakers
avatar for Katherine Kelly-[PA]

Katherine Kelly-[PA]

Senior Book Conservator, Library of Congress
Katherine Kelly is a Senior Book Conservator at the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. Previously, she has worked at the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, the National Archives, Iowa State University, Harvard University, and Cornell University. She received her MS in Information... Read More →
avatar for Denise Stockman

Denise Stockman

Associate Conservator of Paper, New York Public Library
Prior to coming to NYPL, Denise was a fellow at the Morgan Library and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. She interned at a variety of institutions including the Museum of Modern Art, the Brooklyn Museum, the Barnes Foundation, and the National Galleries of Scotland; and was a technician... Read More →


Friday June 1, 2018 12:00pm - 12:45pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston
 
Saturday, June 2
 

10:00am

10:00am

(Architecture) Ground-truthing Adobe Ruins:Assessing Vulnerability of Earthen Architecture in a Changing Climate
One hundred miles northeast of Santa Fe is Fort Union National Monument, the largest adobe ruin in North America and once the largest U.S. military reservation in the Southwest. Established as a National Monument in 1954, Fort Union challenged every succeeding generation of cultural resource specialists—archaeologists, architects, historians, engineers, scientists, conservators, and masons—to find a sustainable solution to the preservation of its earthen walls. The ruins of Fort Union now face unprecedented challenges as increased cycles of extreme weather undermine and topple walls. This research establishes a framework for the integrated study of the deterioration for earthen and masonry structures in the arid West. Risk and threat are examined as ‘vulnerabilities’ related to factors such as materials, construction, use, environment, weather, orientation, exposure, past treatment, and maintenance. The first phase of the project focused on preparing a database inventory and assessment of past records including historical photographs, construction documents, geotechnical and engineering analyses, administrative reports, and weather data (back to 1861) as well as past and current conservation and management strategies. The second phase examined individual vulnerabilities through a survey of one unit of the Fort—the Mechanics Corral in real and projected time. The field survey studied past and current conditions of the adobe walls to calculate wall loss, attrition, and profile changes over time. Real-time recording of the weather on site was conducted over one year, including monitoring of adobe walls using embedded temperature and moisture probes and time-lapse photography to test monitoring apparatus and record actual weather phenomena and wall responses to those phenomena. Finally, parametric software was employed to dynamically model current and future weather and potential climate-based threats to the site to design smarter responses to threats in the form of preventive conservation measures.

Speakers
avatar for Frank Matero-[PA]

Frank Matero-[PA]

Professor of Architecture, University of Pennsylvania Architectural Conservation Laboratory
Frank G. Matero is Professor of Architecture and Chair of the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation at the School of Design at the University of Pennsylvania. He is Director and founder of the Architectural Conservation Laboratory and a member of the Graduate Group in the Department... Read More →



Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

10:00am

(Book and Paper) Stone Paper: Examination of Géricault’s Lion Devouring a Horse Lithographic Printing Matrix
As lithography gained popularity during the beginning of the 19th century, Alois Senefelder, the inventor of lithography, marketed stone paper as a cheaper, more accessible alternative to the cumbersome limestones most commonly used for printing. Between 1820 and 1821, Théodore Géricault, one of the early proponents of lithography, experimented with the use of stone paper. The Lion Devouring a Horse stone paper matrix is in the collection of the Harvard Art Museums and is the focus of this study. Stone paper is a lithographic printing matrix made of a heavy weight paper prepared with a special coating. Like other lithographic processes, the image is drawn on the prepared surface with a greasy material and the surface is then processed and printed from. The stone paper matrix for Lion Devouring a Horse sustained numerous losses to the coating, and during printing the losses in the image area transferred to the prints as voids. Through examination and comparison between the stone paper matrix and various impressions of the print, it is evident that some prints exhibit more voids than others. This variation is an indication that the coating deteriorated as the impressions were being printed and these voids helped build a chronology of this coating deterioration. Earlier impressions of prints are typically considered to have stronger impression quality but based on the developed chronology, earlier impressions of Lion Devouring a Horse do not necessarily relate to stronger impressions.
Senefelder described stone paper coatings as compositions of clay, chalk and metallic oxides. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the stone paper coating revealed only the presence of lead. Small samples were taken for analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis (SEM-EDX) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Analysis confirmed that the material was dominated by lead white (basic lead carbonate) combined with a drying oil binder, casein and gum. Lead soaps are thought to be present within the medium.
The results of these careful comparisons, the instrumental analysis, and tests carried out on modern examples of stone paper will illustrate the practical challenges Géricault faced when printing from stone papers and the reason for their limited commercial success. 
 

Speakers
avatar for Christina Taylor

Christina Taylor

Assistant Paper Conservator, Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies/Harvard Art Museums
Christina Taylor is the Assistant Paper Conservator at the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies/Harvard Art Museums. She is a graduate of SUNY Buffalo State where she earned her MA in Art Conservation in 2015. She has held positions at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston... Read More →

Co-Authors
KE

Katherine Eremin

Patricia Cornwell Senior Conservation Scientist, Harvard Art Museums
Katherine Eremin is the Patricia Cornwell Senior Conservation Scientist at the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies/Harvard Art Museums. She previously worked as an inorganic scientist at the National Museums of Scotland and received her PhD in 1994 from the University... Read More →
avatar for Georgina Rayner

Georgina Rayner

Associate Conservation Scientist, Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies
Georgina Rayner is the Associate Conservation Scientist at the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, Harvard Art Museums. Prior to this role Georgina was the Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow in Conservation Science at the same institution. Georgina holds a Masters... Read More →
CW

Christopher Wallace

Artist/Lithographer/Educator
Christopher Wallace is an artist, lithographer and educator based in Cambridge, MA. He received his MFA in printmaking from the University of North Texas in 2013, and his BFA in printmaking from the Kansas City Art Institute in 2010. He has held teaching positions at the University... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

10:00am

(Electronic Media) Looking Forwards and Backwards: Practical Approaches to the Stewardship of Time-Based Media Art
While time-based media art (TBMA) is defined by how it unfolds to the viewer over time, this increasingly popular artistic medium is uniquely complex in its physical, technical, and conceptual structures. In many cases, artists are explicit about the media they choose, the way in which their work is installed, and the technology used to display it. Museums need to adapt their installation and preservation practices in equally complex ways as a result, pushing the boundaries of traditional museum practice. Nevertheless, many institutions have been acquiring ever-increasing numbers of TBMA without proper documentation or systems in place to ensure that the integrity of these works is preserved over time. Leaders in the field have laid much of the groundwork for the stewardship of TBMA. However, these large institutions number their collections of TBMA in the hundreds to thousands, and what might be a good solution for them might not be appropriate for museums with more modest collections and resources.

This  presentation introduces two projects currently underway from the National Digital Stewardship Residency for Art Information (NDSR Art) at the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Minneapolis Institute of Art which are building on the existing work related to the care and preservation of TBMA The NDSR Art residents at these institutions will detail their efforts towards creating frameworks for the acquisition, documentation, installation, display, and preservation of TBMA. They will highlight how they are tackling the challenge of simultaneously developing best practices for future loans and acquisitions while retroactively applying these standards to their existing TBMA collections. By juxtaposing these two projects and opening the conversation in a panel discussion, the residents aim for these cases to serve as a practical model for art institutions of varying sizes, backgrounds, and needs on how to begin taking steps to ensure the viability of these complex media artworks now and into the future.


Speakers
avatar for Erin Barsan

Erin Barsan

NDSR Art Resident, Minneapolis Institute of Art
Erin is part of the inaugural cohort of the National Digital Stewardship Residency for Art Information (NDSR Art) at the Minneapolis Institute of Art (Mia), where she is taking a lead role in developing a framework for the stewardship of the museum’s rapidly-growing time-based media... Read More →
avatar for Elise Tanner

Elise Tanner

NDSR Art Resident, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Elise Tanner is part of the inaugural 2017-2018 cohort of the National Digital Stewardship Residency for Art Information (NDSR Art) at the Philadelphia Museum of Art (PMA). In collaboration with various stakeholders across the Museum, Elise is building the foundation for the preservation... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:00am

(Objects) Keeping them Ruby: The Preservation of Dorothy's Ruby Slippers
The National Museum of American History’s Ruby Slippers, the beloved shoes worn by Judy Garland in the 1939 classic film The Wizard of Oz, have been on display at the Smithsonian Institution since 1981. In 2016 their conservation, preservation, and long term display became the focus of the Smithsonian’s second Kickstarter campaign. This successful campaign funded research into their history, use, and construction, an in-depth assessment of their materials and condition, and identifying off-gassing degradation products. This analysis guided the Slipper’s treatment, and the design and construction of a display case with optimal environmental (temperature, humidity, light, oxygen) conditions. The shoes are comprised of at least 12 materials which have undergone various types of deterioration, some of which occurred during filming and others by natural degradation processes. The Slippers were created from commercially available pumps that were dyed, painted, and then adorned with sequins, bows and beads. Of particular interest are the sequins, consisting of a gelatin core with a red cellulose nitrate coating, which give the slippers their iconic ruby appearance. Some of the sequins appear transparent ruby red, while others are faded, opaque, have fractured surfaces, and coating losses. They are susceptible to changes in humidity, temperature, light, and chemical degradation. Micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (µ-XRF), micro–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (µ-FTIR), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and scanning electron microscopy – energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) were used to identify the various materials used in the construction of the Slippers. A protocol to identify and monitor for volatile organic compounds included the analysis by solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) in parallel with Ormantine diffusion tube analysis. Rhodamine B was identified as the major colorant on the sequin coating using high performance liquid chromatography - diode array detector – mass spectrometer (HPLC–DAD–MS). This informed the creation of a VIS spectrophotometric library used to determine the most aesthetic LED light combination providing a spectral range that complements the light reflected by the slippers, as well as the optimum spectra to slow the deterioration of the materials.

Authors in Publication Order:  Dawn MP Wallace, Richard Barden, Janet Douglas, Dr. Gwénaëlle Kavich, Dr. Alba Martin Alvarez, Dr. Regina Baglia, Mary Ballard

Speakers
avatar for Dawn MP Wallace

Dawn MP Wallace

Objects Conservator, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
Dawn MP Wallace is an objects conservator working at the National Museum of American History on exhibits for the Museum’s newly renovated West Wing, and on several special projects like the Ruby Slippers. She spent her third year internship at NMAH before graduating from the Buffalo... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Regina Baglia

Regina Baglia

Post-doctoral intern, Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution
Regina A. Baglia received her BS in biochemistry, magna cum laude from Temple University. She completed her PhD from Johns Hopkins in metallic complexes in porphyrin-type ligands that mimic biological oxidation reactions performed by metalloenzymes in 2016 with eleven co-authored... Read More →
avatar for Mary W. Ballard

Mary W. Ballard

Conservator, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
EducationB.A. Wellesley (1971)M.A. and Diploma in Conservation New York University Institute of Fine Arts (1979)Additional coursework: North Carolina State University, College of TextilesResearch Specialties and InterestsInterested in coloration of textiles and in the evidence of... Read More →
avatar for Janet G. Douglas

Janet G. Douglas

Research Associate, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Janet G. Douglas recently retired as the Head of Technical Studies at the Smithsonian’s Museum Conservation Institute, where she applied heritage science, material research and technical support to Smithsonian museum collections. In 2014 she came from the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Gwénaëlle Kavich

Dr. Gwénaëlle Kavich

Conservation Scientist, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
Gwénaëlle Kavich, Conservation Scientist at the Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute, earned a BSc in Chemistry from The Nottingham Trent University (U.K.) and a PhD in Chemical Sciences from the University of Pisa (Italy). She contributes to a wide range of technical studies... Read More →
avatar for Alba Alvarez Martin

Alba Alvarez Martin

Postdoctoral Fellow, Museum Conservation Institute. Smithsonian Institution
Alba Alvarez Martin received her B.S degree in chemistry in 2010 from the University of Salamanca and her PhD in chemistry in 2016. She has also has a MSc in Conservation Science. During her PhD she did stays at IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain), University of Warwick, Coventry (UK) and... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

10:00am

(Paintings) Deciphering intention from ageing: the use of archival material in the study and treatment of Winifred Dysart by George Fuller
The treatment of Winifred Dysart by George Fuller, from the collection of the Worcester Art Museum (WAM), exemplifies the importance of material study to conservation. The painting was selected for conservation in preparation for a rehang of WAM’s American collection. The painting presented several questions, relating to condition and intended appearance, which were addressed before the treatment began. Fuller was an important Massachusetts artist in the late nineteenth century and is well represented in New England collections. However, little technical research about his technique is published. Existing technical research focuses on the altered appearance of his paintings due to the deterioration of glazes. While true in many cases, this information may have had the unintended consequence of discouraging conservators and curators from treating and exhibiting his work. Fortunately, technical analysis, close examination, and primary source research illuminated the artist’s intended appearance of Winifred Dysart and allowed for a successful treatment to be undertaken. As a Tonalist, Fuller evoked an eerie atmosphere in his paintings creating what a contemporary critic described as a “soft golden hue” (Van Rensselaer, 1883) or in other cases a “sulfuric yellow tone” (Enneking, 1886). The yellow appearance of Winifred Dysart was thought to possibly be intentional and initially the decision was taken not to remove the varnish. However, nineteenth-century descriptions of the figure’s “pale lilac” dress suggest the artist did not apply a toned varnish. This, in addition to examination of Fuller’s works in other collections, prompted treatment to be reconsidered and varnish removal to ultimately be carried out. This talk will offer comparisons between Winifred Dysart and Fuller’s works where sulfuric yellow tones were clearly intentional, with the aim of providing guidance for future conservation efforts. Another complicated aspect of Fuller’s technique is the layering and scraping of paint to create texture. Receipts from Boston colorman A.A. Walker document the purchase of large quantities of coarsely woven “Heavy German canvas”. Winifred Dysart is painted coarse canvas which made distinguishing scraping from previous cleaning abrasion challenging. References such as early photographs, drawings, and the study of Fuller’s innovative technique proved essential to understanding and restoring the painting to its intended appearance. John Enneking recalled a scene in which Fuller, while critiquing his painting with fellow artists, changed the figure’s arms using crayons to adjust his composition. The original composition is visible in the x-radiograph, corroborating Enneking’s story. Fuller’s hasty reworking is distinguishable from the original paint layer, but thanks to Enneking we can be certain this reworking was done by the artist. Unfortunately, a previous restoration interpreted the artist’s reworking as unoriginal and attempted to remove it. The recent treatment addressed this damage, referencing Enneking’s description and an historical photograph, to reintegrate the damaged area. Understanding Fuller’s rich and complex approach to painting has proven essential to the successful treatment of Winifred Dysart. By sharing the observations and approaches taken during this treatment it is hoped that more works by this talented artist will be conserved and exhibited.

Speakers
avatar for Roxane Sperber

Roxane Sperber

Clowes Associate Conservator of Paintings, Indianapolis Museum of Art
Roxane Sperber is the Clowes Associate Conservator of Paintings at the Indianapolis Museum of Art. She was previously the Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Painting Conservation at the Worcester Art Museum (WAM). Before coming to WAM she worked as a research conservator in the Technical... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

10:00am

(Research and Technical Studies) The human endeavour: when source communities, conservators and scientists collaborate
When science and material cultural heritage collaborate, the study may be called archaeometry, technical art history, conservation science, or taphonomy. The research may be about the artist’s technique, tools, or component materials; or it may focus on specific techniques such as dating objects, non-destructive analysis; or it may be about the decomposition of materials during the period from deposition to discovery, or it may be focus on the predicting the future preservation risk to objects of art, archaeology, architecture. When conservators work with source communities, it may be called a consultation, collaboration, or contribution. The role of conservators and conservation scientists is very important. This presentation will share examples that illustrate their value when working with source communities under different circumstances.  

Speakers
avatar for Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, University of Arizona
Nancy Odegaard is the Head of the Preservation Division at the Arizona State Museum on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson where she is also a professor with the Department of Material Science & Engineering, the School of Anthropology, and the Drachman Institute (historic... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:00am

(Textiles) Application of Multispectral Imaging in the Practice of Textile Conservation: Documentation, Investigation, and Communication
Thanks to advances in digital imaging and its increased availability, Multispectral Imaging (MSI) is becoming a useful tool in conservation. Photography with different ranges of radiation such as IR, UV, and X-ray has been widely used in conservation. What recent development in MSI offers more of than those conventional images is based on digital imaging technique. Higher reproducibility which otherwise tends to be subjective to users and set-ups, can be attained by standardization in capturing and processing images using digital cameras and imaging programs. This consistency is critical when using visual information as analytical data. MSI requires relatively simple and inexpensive set-ups with a range of radiation sources and filters. A set of images is produced by systematically recording reflective and luminescence radiation from an object through the spectra of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light in controlled settings. Each image maps different information from the object. It has been a challenge to translate this visual information and find its applications in conservation practice. Analyzing the luminescent component of an object under UV light has been used as a non-destructive analytical technique to identify some materials. In the past, the majority of studies on analyzing visual information from MSI was done with paintings and sculptures. In this presentation, I will explore MSI of various types of samples and textiles from the collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, discussing information that each spectrum provides. Based on our knowledge of conventional IR and UV images, textiles of different materials and conditions will be chosen to demonstrate information as diverse as possible provided by MSI. Images taken under UV light show a wide range of visual information including colors. Textile conservators have used UV light to detect condition issues and luminescent materials on the surface, such as dirt, stain, additives and some organic colorants. Some dyes are known for their specific luminescence under UV light and there are indications that more materials show specific patterns of luminescence. In order to have any analytical conclusions, we need sufficient information that can be comparable and communicable. I expect this imaging technique will help us to collect standardized data by recording the intensity and color information systematically. MSI has already proved to be an excellent mapping method by providing a holistic view of an object showing the distribution of certain material or condition. Depending on the user’s purpose, images of different spectra can be merged or highlighted by using false color technique which manipulates red, green, and blue components for stronger visual effects. I hope more analytical use of MSI is possible. If we can identify or even categorize materials on textiles based on visual information under certain radiation, we would be able to instantly provide necessary support for their preservation. I wish to collaborate with other conservators to create a platform where we can exchange and share information to discover MSI’s potential applications in textile conservation.

Speakers
avatar for Kisook Suh

Kisook Suh

Associate Conservator, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Kisook Suh is Associate Conservator in the Department of Textile Conservation at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. She is currently working on medieval tapestries of The Cloisters’ collections. Kisook has been part of varied projects at the Museum, in particular preparing textiles... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:00am

(Wooden Artifacts) The interdisciplinary approach in the conservation of wooden objects of the Museu do Ipiranga
A historical museum can contain in its collections infinite sources of research. The Museu do Ipiranga, administered by the University of São Paulo, has focus on the history of the Brazilian society with objects of personal use, furniture, documents, photographs and also paintings.  A vast collection of attractive wooden furniture draws attention to the quality and diversity of materials, and brings out an important history of material culture since 18th century. In 2012, a specific research line was created for the conservation of wooden furniture, with the objective of defining protocols and methodologies for documentation, conservation, packaging, transportation and restoration of these objects. The work counted with professionals of the conservation of painting, paper and metal and involvement of the areas of Chemistry, Physics and Biology. The university environment favored the involvement and availability of experts and students in researches of the objects collections, material on culture and characterization of materials. On this occasion, we present the research taken on six wooden objects, between 17th and 18th century: a bed (A); chairs ( B), (C) and (D); chest (E) and chest (F). The identification of the wood species by the macroscopic method of the wood anatomy and the characterization of the pigments were carried out using analytical techniques. The obtained results allowed to show important informations of the objects that are useful to guide the conservation actions and curatorship in the museum. In relation to the documentation, it was possible to relate the place of origin and the period of preparation of each object, according to the phytogeographic information of the wood species. The work was carried out by a Biologist anatomist of woods with the methodology of sampling defined in agreement with the experts of Conservation of the Museum. At this presentation, it also will be showed an innovative research of the history of use and demands of brazilian wood specimens, showing the paths and origins of these native materials until the 18th century. This methodology and research presented here will be extended to other collections of objects in wood and vegetable fibers as a tool for the preservation and understanding of the collections in the Museum.

Speakers
avatar for Fabiola Zambrano Figueroa

Fabiola Zambrano Figueroa

Wood Conservator, Museu Paulista da Universidade de Sao Paulo
I have a degree in Architecture and Urbanism from the University of São Paulo, and received a Masters in Civil Construction Materials at the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo in 2010, with a specialization in Restoration and Conservation of Mobile Cultural Heritage... Read More →
avatar for Rogério Ricciluca Matiello Félix

Rogério Ricciluca Matiello Félix

Postgraduate Student, PPGHS-USP
Graduated in History from the University of São Paulo (2014). Postgraduate student (Masters) in Social History at the Faculty of Philosophy, Languages and Human Sciences (FFLCH) of the University of São Paulo (since 2015) under the supervision of Drs. Maria Aparecida de Menezes... Read More →



Saturday June 2, 2018 10:00am - 10:30am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Electronic Media) A steep learning curve: developments in the field of time-based art conservation in Australia
In recognition of the significant historical, cultural and financial value of Australian time-based art collections, conservation, registration and curatorial departments have been working independently to develop policies, procedures and programs for time-based art. These efforts are not moving quickly enough, however, to meaningfully reduce the risk of losing important twentieth and twenty-first century time-based artworks. The past efforts of individuals working in an ad-hoc fashion, while adequate to resolve minor issues at hand, does not adequately address the ongoing challenges of time-based art conservation as a discipline. Consequently, many Australian institutions have fallen behind in the development and specialisation of time-based art conservation; this lack of participation can be attributed to geographical isolation, a lack of financial investment and resourcing within Australian institutions, very little expertise, a lack of training programs for specialists in the field, and an absence of upper level advocacy within the sector.
Australian institutions are approaching the precipice of a breakthrough regarding the way we embrace and manage our time-based art collections. To achieve a broader vision for the future of Australian time-based art collections, national institutions need to focus on the following goals:
·       The implementation of comprehensive new policies and procedures for time-based collections in Australian institutions
·       Education and advocacy for the management of time-based art collections in Australia
·       A shift in institutional culture and the traditional demarcation of roles when seizing opportunities to create new streams of museum practice   
and collaboration
·       Contribution to the greater dialogue surrounding the end of life strategies applied to time-based artworks
·       The development of training programs in the field of time-based art conservation
While the efforts of institutions such as The Art Gallery of NSW (AGNSW) have begun to facilitate a shift in thinking, combined with tangible momentum from conservation professionals working towards addressing the needs of Australian time-based art collections, much remains to be done to ensure this progress can be both consolidated and built upon to bring about lasting, comprehensive change at a national level.

Speakers
avatar for Asti Sherring

Asti Sherring

Time-based art conservator/ PhD canidate, Art Gallery of New South Wales/ University of Canberra
Asti Sherring is currently employed as the first time-based art conservator at The Art Gallery of New South Wales, a position which began in 2015. Asti completed a Bachelor of Media Arts with honours from Sydney University in 2005. She completed a Post-Graduate Certificate in photographs... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 10:45am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Architecture) Laser Ablation for the Removal of Biofilm at the Thomas Jefferson Memorial: a Test Case and Critical Evaluation
The Thomas Jefferson Memorial is an iconic monument that is widely identifiable both throughout the United States and the world. Located within National Mall and Memorial Parks, a unit of the National Park Service in Washington, DC, the design of this white marble monument combines classical iconography with modern construction to enshrine the ideals associated with one of this country’s founding fathers. Over the last decade, Memorial has become rapidly soiled by biofilm. The blackening effect of biofilm, a colony of microscopic organisms that adheres to stone surfaces, was first noticeable in discrete areas of the memorial’s white marble in 2006, and has become more pronounced in recent years. While it manifests itself in various ways, the biofilm is most pervasive—and most visible—on the Memorial’s dome. A multi-disciplinary team of conservators, architects and other professionals has been studying the growth on the Jefferson Memorial since 2014 to determine the best treatment options. After careful review, it was decided that the initial cleaning test would be performed using laser ablation. Laser ablation offers maximum protection to this significant cultural resource as well as the surrounding natural resources: by fine-tuning the laser settings to the specific stone and soiling types, laser operators can remove the biofilm without damaging historically sensitive marble. The use of laser is also an environmentally sound procedure and eliminates the need to use more aggressive chemicals or abrasive cleaning methods. Rigorous safety controls are maintained for the duration of the cleaning process to protect the public and the operators. The project will achieve the cleaning of a test area of 1,000 square feet on the northeast side of the Memorial. This presentation will evaluate the efficacy of laser cleaning to remove biofilm through the lens of this trial cleaning effort. This will include a discussion of: the decision process by which this cleaning method was arrived upon; the characterization and understanding of this biofilm phenomenon to date; the intricacies of implementing and scaling a cleaning project at this site; and what might be done to prevent or deter soiling recurrence in the future. A brief comparison of this phenomenon to the incidence of biofilm at other major sites in Washington, DC will also be included.

Speakers
avatar for Justine P. Bello-[PA]

Justine P. Bello-[PA]

Architectural Conservator, National Park Service
Ms. Bello is Architectural Conservator for National Mall and Memorial Parks, a unit of the National Park Service (NPS) in Washington, DC. Her primary responsibility is overseeing the ongoing conservation of the major public art collection of statues, monuments, Memorials, and fountains... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Book and Paper) Édouard Manet’s Pastels on Canvas Supports
Édouard Manet (1832 – 1883) is celebrated as an accomplished painter and draughtsman, equally conversant with canvas, oil paint and brush as he was pen and ink. From the perspective of materiality, his pastels, particularly those executed on primed canvases, stand at the intersection of these two disciplines. Relying on analysis carried out for an ambitious online scholarly catalogue, this talk compares and contrasts two of these works, Man with a Dog and Portrait of Alphonse Maureau, and discusses the adoption of paintings conservation techniques to stabilize the artworks for storage and display. Both works are portraits in the collection of the Prints and Drawings Department at the Art Institute of Chicago. Although dissimilar as portraits, the works are strikingly similar in terms of materials and techniques. Examination of the works indicates that Manet borrowed heavily from his knowledge of painting practice. Notable technical analysis included thread count and weave match analysis, which demonstrate that the supports were cut from the same bolt of cloth, likely a commercially prepared canvas. Unfortunately, the canvases are significantly undulated and the ground does not provide adequate purchase for the layers of unfixed pastel, and thus there is media loss throughout both artworks. The second part of this lecture details how paper conservation staff have used padded inserts, similar to those used for oil paintings, to fill the recesses created by the stretcher from the verso to provide an even support and cushioning to the slack canvases, and to reduce or eliminate vibration. The Édouard Manet online scholarly catalogue is available through the Art Institute of Chicago’s Conservation web page or through the following address: https://publications.artic.edu/manet/reader/manetart/section/140020.

Speakers
avatar for Christine Conniff-O'Shea

Christine Conniff-O'Shea

Assistant Conservator for Preparation and Framing, The Art Institute of Chicago
Christine (Chris) Conniff-O'Shea holds a B.A in Fine Arts from the University of New Mexico where she studied drawing and printmaking. Chris is known for her specialized knowledge of historic mounting practices and modes for works of art on paper and the creative adaption of the same... Read More →
avatar for Rachel Freeman

Rachel Freeman

Associate Paper Conservator, The Art Institute of Chicago
Rachel Freeman graduated with a BA from Randolph-Macon Woman’s College (1991) and an MA with a certificate in advanced study in conservation from Buffalo State, SUNY (2004). Rachel's conservation training internships and fellowships include time spent at Heugh-Edmondson Conservation... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Don Johnson

Don Johnson

Professor, Rice University
Don H. Johnson is the J.S. Abercrombie Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rice University, Houston, Texas. He received his undergraduate and graduate degrees in electrical engineering, all from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined M.I.T. Lincoln... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Objects) Eva Hesse Addendum: Exploring Materiality and Emerging Technologies
The third case study for the NANORESTART research project at Tate focuses on Eva Hesse, Addendum (1967), a sculpture made of rope and papier mâché. The project aims to address cleaning challenges by exploring the use of newly developed gels synthesised using nanotechnology. The first phase focused on material characterisation and analysis in combination with historical research to help understand the context of the materials Hesse used for this sculpture. Analysis using FTIR, EDX, microscopy, pyrolysis GCMS, and UV fluorescence confirmed the presence of a pEA/MMA acrylic paint throughout, with a transparent PVAc coating. The painted cotton ropes have an additional transparent pnBA/MMA coating which has degraded and yellowed. The surface of the entire sculpture has embedded surface dirt with particular soiling of the rope ends in contact with the gallery floor during display. Research into Hesse’s use of materials with a focus on her exploration of new synthetic materials at the time she was making Addendum, will help to determine if the secondary coating on the ropes was artist applied or applied subsequent to acquisition. In 1967 Hesse attended lectures such as Polymers and Acrylic Materials as part of a wider series on Experiments in Art and Technologies. These lectures significantly influenced her practice both in terms of her material choice but also her subject matter. Although pnBA/MMA was introduced commercially in 1967, given Hesse’s exploration of materiality it is possible she may have chosen to use this new latex-type material. The next phase was to undertake extensive cleaning tests on papier mâché and rope mock-up samples that were created using contemporary equivalents of the same materials used in Addendum. The mock-ups were also artificially soiled and aged. The surface cleaning options evaluated explored a range of commonly-used cleaning solutions, micro-emulsions, and various gel systems.  These included the polyvinyl alcohol-based gels developed through the NANORESTART project and new gels tailored by CSGI specifically for this case study. Once the most appropriate strategy was fully evaluated, the sculpture underwent an extensively documented conservation treatment, where key decisions were made in conjunction with Tate’s curatorial team and relevant stakeholders. This practice-based research included a collaboration of conservators, conservation and academic scientists and art historians/curators, where the balance of information gathered aimed not only to result in the successful treatment of this significant sculpture, but to contribute to our knowledge of Hesse’s work and the refinement of new technologies which can aid in the conservation treatment of complex modern and contemporary works of art.

The Nanorestart project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 646063
Tamar Maor [1], Angelica Bartoletti [1], Nicole Bonelli [2], David Chelazzi [2], Piero Baglioni [2], Bronwyn Ormsby [1]
[1] - Tate, London    [2] - Department of Chemistry and CSGI, University of Florence
 

Speakers
avatar for Tamar Maor

Tamar Maor

Sculpture and Installation Conservator, Tate
Tamar Maor is a sculpture and installation conservator based at Tate, working primarily with modern and contemporary materials. Tamar works extensively with living artists represented in the Tate collection, developing techniques and solutions to challenges which arise from contemporary... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr. Angelica Bartoletti

Dr. Angelica Bartoletti

Research Conservation Scientist, Tate
Dr Angelica Bartoletti is a conservation scientist at TATE for the NANORESTART project. She has completed her PhD at University College London (UCL). Her research interests include the evaluation of the impact of traditional and innovative conservation treatments for cellulose and... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Bronwyn Ormsby

Dr. Bronwyn Ormsby

Principal Conservation Scientist, Tate
Dr Bronwyn Ormsby is Principal Conservation Scientist at Tate. She manages the Conservation Science and Preventive Conservation department and leads Tate's contribution to the Nanorestart project.

Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Paintings) Back to Blakelock: Casting new light on historic technical studies of paintings by Ralph Albert Blakelock
Ralph Albert Blakelock was an American landscape artist (1847-1919) famous for his paintings of moonlit Western landscapes painted in the late 1880s and early 1890s. Prices for his paintings soared and forgeries quickly multiplied after he was institutionalized with mental illness in 1899. In the present day, his works are seldom exhibited due to condition issues and concerns about authenticity. Beginning in 1969, Norman Geske, former director of the Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery at the University of Nebraska, and his team worked toward resolving the latter problem. They supplemented provenance research and documentation with systematic examination of the paintings, including neutron-activation autoradiography of several dozen works, a technique that was first applied to the study of paintings just a few years earlier. The Yale University Art Gallery’s acquisition of Moonlight (c. 1888), a Blakelock painting studied by Geske’s team and considered to have excellent provenance, represented a unique opportunity to revisit the examination and analysis of this painting and Blakelock’s mature oeuvre. Based on detailed examination of painting technique and materials of Moonlight and two moonlit landscape paintings from the Brooklyn Museum and the Metropolitan Museum for Art as well as close observation of other paintings from these and other collections, we propose new criteria for attributing paintings to Blakelock and begin connecting condition issues to material choice and use. To convey depth and subtle tones, the artist alternated numerous medium-rich transparent and pigmented translucent or opaque paint layers. The aging of the natural resin component in the paint layers contributed to the darkening of Moonlight, though the degree to which the artist may have anticipated and desired this is difficult to gauge. In addition to contributing to darkening, the resin content of the paint films has impacted the films’ mechanical properties – resulting in brittleness. The presence of resin-rich top layers also has important implications for solvent-based varnish removal or thinning treatments. This work utilizes a suite of imaging and instrumental analysis techniques (multispectral imaging, x-ray radiography, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy spot measurements and large area mapping, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy – energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) to study Moonlight comprehensively, in the spirit of Geske and his team. Large area elemental mapping using micro-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, motivated by the desire to visualize a newly-identified female portrait under the landscape, also helped clarify the paint application sequence in the landscape, especially at the boundary of the sky and tree foliage. The many thin layers used by Blakelock for his compositions, however, complicate the inference of specific pigments from non-destructive elemental analyses; as a result, cross-sections have proven highly valuable for visualizing layer stratigraphy as well as for enabling pigment identification. These results, in combination with large-area elemental maps, can now serve to revisit neutron-activation autoradiography results from the 1970s and reinvigorate scholarship and presentation of Blakelock’s moonlit landscapes.

Speakers
avatar for Aniko Bezur-[PA]

Aniko Bezur-[PA]

Professional Associate, Wallace S. Wilson Director of Scientific Research
Anikó Bezur received a Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of Arizona. As a doctoral candidate, she completed internships at the Arizona State Museum's Conservation Laboratory, the Smithsonian Institution's Museum Conservation Institute, and the Getty Conservation... Read More →
AK

Anna Krez

Postgraduate Associate, Yale University Art Gallery
Anna Krez, Paintings Conservation Fellow at the Yale University Art Gallery, earned her BA and MA from the program in conservation, technical art history, and conservation science at the Technical University of Munich in 2013 and 2015, respectively. During her studies she interned... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Mark D. Mitchell

Mark D. Mitchell

Holcombe T. Green Curator of American Paintings and Sculpture, Yale Art Gallery
Mark D. Mitchell, is the Holcombe T. Green Curator of American Paintings and Sculpture. His research interests in American art extend from the colonial period to the later twentieth century, with particular depth in landscape and still-life painting. Exhibitions organized by him at... Read More →
avatar for Meng Ren

Meng Ren

Ph.D. candidate, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Meng Ren is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Her doctoral research focuses on the organic residue analysis in archaeological... Read More →
KS

Katherine Schilling

Associate Conservation Research Scientist, Yale University
Katherine Schilling is an associate conservation research scientist at the Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage and an associate research scientist and lecturer in the department of Chemical Engineering at Yale University. She earned her PhD in chemical physics at the... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston
  • Specialty Tracks Paintings
  • Cost Type Included with registration
  • Abstract ID 13704
  • Authors (in order) Anna Krez, Anikó Bezur, Mark D. Mitchell, Meng Ren, Katherine A. Schilling

10:30am

(Research and Technical Studies) Big Things Come in Small Packages: The Materials Analysis Lab at Colonial Williamsburg and its Impact Throughout the Foundation
In 2014, the Conservation Department at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (CWF) established its first-ever Materials Analysis Laboratory to serve the needs of the Foundation’s conservators, curators, architectural historians, and historic area tradespeople. Current instrumentation includes an upright microscope for cross-section and polarized light microscopy, a handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF), an infrared microspectrometer coupled with a conventional light microscope, and a desktop scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The creation of this lab at CW was made possible through donor funds coupled with recent advancements in analytical technologies which have led to the development of smaller, more compact instruments with comparable sensitivities to their larger counterparts at relatively affordable prices and with more intuitive, user-friendly software. (This lecture will include a special review of the IR microspectrometer and desktop SEM-EDS for those who may be interested in the advantages and disadvantages of these smaller instruments). Most analyses are carried out by the Foundation’s first-ever Materials Analyst, allowing the conservators to focus on their busy treatment schedules. However, with minimal training conservators can use instruments for their own research, as time allows. The Materials Analysis Laboratory has been a major contribution to the work of conservation staff. Case studies will illustrate some of the straight-forward ways in which having on-site analysis has been an advantage – from minimizing the time spent on empirical materials testing for the reversal of a modern glass repair, or the characterization of exhibit fabrics to assess their eligibility for dyeing. We have found, across the board, that this leads to more effective assessments, treatments, and the development of more appropriate storage environments. Another department that has embraced the lab is our historic trades program. CWF tradespeople are not simply actors – they are artisans and scholars dedicated to better understanding and mastering 18th c. tools and technologies. Collaborations between the lab with historic trades, using museum collection objects as subjects, makes CW a unique resource for material studies. Tradespeople use historically accurate materials whenever possible and they practice their craft in view of the public, providing opportunities for outreach and education relating to the role of analysis at CWF. Case studies will illustrate the variety of ways in which the lab has contributed to their work – including the study of 18th c. felt hats to identify animal fiber blends for our historic area hat-maker, to determining the color and composition of paints used on 18th and 19th c. tin lanterns in our collection that would be replicated by our tin shop for use in the historic area. As historic area tradespeople engage with the public, they often discuss the evidence provided by scientific analysis. This juxtaposition of modern technology within an 18th century setting gives our guests an unforgettable visitor experience and a new appreciation for the depth of our research.

Speakers
avatar for Kirsten Moffitt-[PA]

Kirsten Moffitt-[PA]

Conservator & Materials Analyst, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Kirsten Travers Moffitt is a conservator of painted surfaces with a specialty in the microscopy and analysis of historic finishes. She received her B.F.A. in Fine Art from the State University of New York at Purchase in 1997, and spent the next eleven years working as a decorative... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Textiles) Pointing in the Right Direction: Identifying Technological Features to Orient Navajo Textiles
This talk includes the findings of a technical study on Navajo handwoven textiles. Our research identifies key markers in fabric construction to aid in determining the textiles’ original orientation on the upright frame loom during weaving and, by extension, the actual top, bottom, front and back of the textile. These physical markers could easily be mistaken as damage, wear, repairs or other condition issues, making their identification particularly important. Additionally, identifying the orientation is significant for proper placement of museum labels; appropriate positioning for documentation and exhibition, and to aid researchers and weavers studying collections. Key features may also be potentially useful for identifying the work of individual weavers across an assemblage, and to discern the weaver’s hand even after items have been traded and collected. While there is an extensive literature on Navajo weaving and textiles, little to no attention has focused on documenting and interpreting these technological markers in order to establish the textiles’ original orientation. Rather, publications on technology have focused on distinguishing Navajo from Pueblo, Spanish American and Mexican textiles, and determining a chronology based on construction, materials, and design. To address this gap in the literature, our technical survey includes a sample of Navajo dresses, blankets, ponchos, and rugs, all woven on a frame loom and ranging from the mid nineteenth to twenty-first centuries. We provide discussion and visual examples of a number of telltale technological traits and evaluate their effectiveness in pointing a viewer in the right direction. From this project, we provide a workflow and documentation form to use in discerning the top from bottom, and front from back in Navajo textiles.

Speakers
avatar for Betsy Burr

Betsy Burr

Assistant Conservator, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service
Betsy Burr is from Minneapolis, MN and began her training in conservation at the Minnesota Historical Society in Saint Paul. She received her MA in 2016 from UCLA in Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials where she completed her thesis on dye analysis of archaeological... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Conservator, Head of Preservation Division, Arizona State Museum; Professor, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, School of Anthropology, American Indian Studies GIDP, University of Arizona, University of Arizona
Nancy Odegaard is the Head of the Preservation Division at the Arizona State Museum on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson where she is also a professor with the Department of Material Science & Engineering, the School of Anthropology, and the Drachman Institute (historic... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Delana Joy Farley

Delana Joy Farley

Museum Curator, Southern Ute Museum
Delana Joy Farley is Dine from Littlewater, NM on the Navajo Nation. She is a third generation weaver and also a museum professional. She graduated with a BA from the Institute of American Indian Arts in 2006 and also with an MA from New York University in Museum Studies in 2008... Read More →
avatar for Ann Lane Hedlund

Ann Lane Hedlund

Museum Curator, Retired, Arizona State Museum
Ann Lane Hedlund served from 1997 to 2013 as museum curator at Arizona State Museum and anthropology professor at University of Arizona, where she also directed the Gloria F. Ross Center for Tapestry Studies until her 2013 retirement. Dr. Hedlund is a cultural anthropologist who collaborates... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

10:30am

(Wooden Artifacts) Reproducing decorative furniture inlay by digital means.
As the earlier specialized skills for making intricate inlay and marquetry become less practiced, digital cutting methods continue to develop and become more accessible. We incorporated three digital processes, waterjet, laser, and CNC, to reproduce small repeating inlay patterns on two pieces of mid-1880’s furniture. 
One furniture piece was an aesthetic style worktable made by George Schastey & Co., NY, for which multiple similar pieces of brass and zinc veneer, each about ½” x ¾” x 1 mm thick, were reproduced by waterjet. For the second furniture piece, a pair of Greco-Pompeian style piano stools made by Johnstone Norman & Co., London, four similar monograms were replicated, using CO2 laser to cut three densities of wood, and CNC milling for mother-of-pearl parts.
This is a broad description of the furniture and their conservation treatments, a comparison of the digital cutting processes, and an overview of basic terminology useful for collaborating with fabricators when similar projects are being considered.

Speakers
avatar for Hugh Glover-[PA]

Hugh Glover-[PA]

Conservator, Williamstown Art Conservation Center
Glover has been the principle furniture and wood conservator at Williamstown Art Conservation Center since 1988.
avatar for Sarah Pike

Sarah Pike

Supplier/Service Provider, FreeFall Laser


Saturday June 2, 2018 10:30am - 11:00am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Electronic Media) The preservation and conservation of digital technology heritage - A case study of new media art collection of National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts
The rapid evolution of modern digital technologies has made tremendous impact on human culture, and has fundamentally changed our ways of life and perceiving the world. Advanced sciences and technologies have been more than ever innovated so that preserving the cultural heritage of digital technology has become a trend for museums worldwide. In Taiwan, new media art works starting to gain population from 2006. Up to now, all domestic representative museums do preserve new media art works. Among them, the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Art (NTMoFA) collects the largest amount of collections. The work regarding acquiring, cataloging, preserving, conserving and restoring of the collections is the key function that a museum maintains the originality and authenticity of its collections. However, new media art works constantly challenge the past concept of minimal intervention when maintaining and restoring art works to their original forms which more emphasizes on the physical maintenance and restoration. The challenge is due to re-producibility property, form of multiple presentations, cooperative exchange, and fast technology evolving form of modern society, as a result of numerical representation of new media arts. This research’s main objective is to understand the actual impact made and its associated reasons when Taiwan public art museums are executing the affair of preserving, conserving and restoring the new media art works. By reviewing the related literature, we first investigate the characteristics of new media art, how it has been developed in our country, principles of preserving and restoring the art collections, and its necessary professional museum expertise and ethnics. Next, we will further study the discussion in the related domestic literature on the subjects of new media art works’ preservation and re-exhibition. Furthermore, we summarize the obtained experience from both inside and outside our country, and the associated challenge and opportunity in preserving new media art works. Finally, we specifically investigate the new media art collections of NTMoFA as a case study. This research adopts the method of semi-structured in-depth interviewing. The professionals to be interviewed include those who are practitioners in preserving and repairing art works. We particularly take three NTMoFA's new media art collections as the main subjects for the interview, and reconstruct on-site real scene of preservation and restoration. Lastly, from both aspects of new media's cultural and computer layer, we analyze the transformation of meaning in the museum’s reservation and conservation principles, followed by summarizing the research and proposing conclusion. We suggest that based on current administrative system, it is necessary to build up new methodology and strategy for conserving new media art works in full scale.Hopefully, this research can provide a useful reference and different vision to related practitioners of art museums and other interdisciplinary people who are interested in conservation of new media art works.

Speakers
avatar for Yu-Hsien Chen

Yu-Hsien Chen

Associate Conservator (Former Project Director, Taiwan Digital Art Foundation, M Plus Museum Limited (Former Save Media Art Project)
Yu-hsien Chen is the former director of “Save Media Art” project established by Taiwan Digital Art Foundation since Nov, 2017. Currently working in M+, Hong Kong, as a associate conservator of digital and media art since February, 2019. And she has been working full-time as a... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr Shin chieh Tzeng

Dr Shin chieh Tzeng

Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Conservation of Cultural Relics and Museology
Dr. Shin-Chieh Tzeng has awarded his Ph.D. in Museum and Gallery Studies from the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK in 2009 and since has been a faculty member of the Graduate Institute of Conservation of Cultural Relics and Museology.  He worked for several museums in Taiwan... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:15am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Architecture) Biofilms and White Marble Monuments: Recent Work
Biofilms are microbial communities, held together and to a substrate by a gel-like material. Biofilms cover all marble monuments. The biofilms that are considered visually unattractive are black; the black color is melanin, a pigment produced in response to UV radiation. Conservators are often tasked with “cleaning,” or “removing” a melanin-producing biofilm. To better understand these biofilms and concerns for their removal, the National Park Service’s Historic Architecture, Conservation, and Engineering Center executed a series of cleaning tests for long-term monitoring (15 years ago and 3 years ago); collaborated with the Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, and the Mathematics Department, Temple University on a National Science Foundation grant; and collaborated with students in the Biotechnology Lab, Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, Arlington, VA. Results from research and tests thus far conclude: 1. Biofilms are far more complex than one can imagine. 2. The bio-receptive surface of eroded marble is the perfect substrate for biofilms. 3. Stressing biofilms (many cleaning treatments) will produce immunities and a biofilm more resistant to that stress when it returns. 4. All brands of products containing quartenary ammonium compounds (quats) used for cleaning tests behaved the same. 5. Quats can be used as a diagnostic tool to determine the presence of biofilms, whether they contain melanin or not. 6. There is a relationship between biofilms, moisture, and salt deliquescence on a marble surface. Biofilms might be keeping surface salts in solution. 7. Microorganisms categorized as “extremeophiles” are found on white marble monuments in Washington, DC. 8. DNA sequencing of biofilm samples taken from a marble surface before and after cleaning tests is a way to understand success—or not—of cleaning. Collaborations continue, tests continue, observations continue, and research continues. Assumptions of biofilm activity and relationships to marble need to be constantly questioned. There is no solution to keeping eroded white marble monuments white, but with the efforts of many institutions, individuals, and industry, working together, we will learn more about biofilms and may even find a solution to keeping melanin-producing biofilms at bay.

Speakers
avatar for Judith M. Jacob-[PA]

Judith M. Jacob-[PA]

Senior Conservator, National Park Service
Judith M. Jacob is a Senior Conservator with the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Region, Historic Architecture, Conservation, and Engineering Center. She provides conservation support for NPS buildings, structures, and monuments. Her responsibilities include planning and administrating... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Book and Paper) Think Outside of the Box: Displaying Paper Objects Without Using Classic Method
Toilet paper is one of our daily necessities. However, when it is becomes a museum object that needs to carefully be treated and stored, it takes a lot of efforts for its light, thin and soft property. This essay targets on making preventive conservation of toilet tissue object by utilizing friction and static electricity. Unlike other paper objects, the toilet paper has same special properties; for example, it is thinner to be torn apart, lighter to be blown away, and more sensitive to moisture. For those reasons, we need to preserve and display this kind of object in different ways instead of expected paper conservation ideas. We focus on how to preserve and display this kind of object by choosing suitable materials and trying different methods of fixing museum objects. Due to its vulnerable structure and hygroscopic feature, we avoid using any adhesive on the object directly. Instead, we try to use friction and static electricity testing the stability of storage method. First of all, we made use of the storage method of textiles and fiber objects- to fix the paper and the textile via friction. Through friction tests, we found the object could be sit steadily on textile. Then, we made a deep window with inner tray for each toilet paper. Last, we fixed the object with imperceptible strips to preserve sliding and falling. Therefore, we found the static electricity is another function to hold the toilet tissue object, not only the friction but the static electricity became ideal way to house and display object at the same time. The object is a manuscript written by Lu Hsiu-lien on toilet paper with a ballpoint pen when she was imprisoned for a political event known as “Kaohsiung Incident” back in 1979. This manuscript focus on New Feminism and the political issue she has long concerned with, which is quite important in the development of both society and politics in Taiwan. The manuscript used to be displayed on a poster by sticking on copying paper with double-side tape, which resulted in deterioration. As a result, it had been did treatment when it was housed in National Museum of Taiwan Literature. The discussion aims at the conservation of object made of toilet paper. Besides coming up with a measure to conserve object made of toilet paper preventive conservation for toilet paper object with the minimal intervention and reversibility, it is also important for us to think how to display this kind of object.

Speakers
avatar for Hsuan-Yu Chen

Hsuan-Yu Chen

Conservator, National Museum of Taiwan Literature
Hsuan-Yu Chen is a conservator working at National Museum of Taiwan Literature (NMTL). He received his MA degree in paper conservation from Tainan National University of the Art, Taiwan. Tracing his working experiences, Hsuan-Yu had been an intern at Harry Ransom Center in Texas and... Read More →
avatar for Chi-Chun Lin

Chi-Chun Lin

Object conservator, YL Conservation Studio
Chi-Chun Lin has worked an assistant conservator at National Museum of Taiwan Literature (NMTL) since 2015. She has managed three projects assisting museum staffs in NMTL to do object catalogue and management. In 2013, the Staffordshire Hoard Conservation team at the Birmingham Museum... Read More →

Co-Authors
JJ

Jen Jung Ku

Senior Paper Conservator, National Museum of Taiwan Literature
Jen Jung Ku received a MA in paper conservation from the Tainan National University of the Arts Tainan National University of the Arts (2010). She undertook advanced internships and additional training at the George Eastman House and Library and Archives Canada .She is presently senior... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Objects) Conserving Alchemy: Bonded Bronze and the Art of Michael Richards
In 2001 the 38-year-old Jamaican-American artist Michael Richards was flourishing. His body of work was compelling and suggested immense promise. He had already won a number of competitive artist residencies including one from the Lower Manhattan Cultural Council (LMCC). His work had been exhibited at the Studio Museum in Harlem, the Miami Art Museum and the Aldrich Museum, amongst others. Often addressing themes of race and social injustice, his work from the 1990’s has particular current relevance. Imagery of aviation and flight recurs in Richards’ art expressing the potential of both uplift and downfall. Richards’s best known work is Tar Baby vs. Saint Sebastian, a full size cast of himself dressed as a Tuskegee Airman pierced by airplanes. This piece became prophetic when the artist perished in the September 11 attacks after working overnight in his studio on the 92nd Floor of the World Trade Center’s Tower One.

In the spring of 2016 in conjunction with the 15th anniversary of his death, the LMCC organized an exhibition entitled Michael Richards: Winged on Governor’s Island in New York. A.M. Art Conservation was asked to examine and treat 11 pieces for the show. The majority of these, which came from Richards’s estate, had not been exhibited since his death. Treating the sculptures within the LMCC’s tight timetable and budget was a challenge. These pieces are among the most significant surviving works by the artist yet none had been stored in conditions optimal for preservation.

Richards employed unique applications of a wide range of non-traditional materials, including human and synthetic hair, latex rubber, feathers, tar, barbed wire, fiberglass and mechanical moving parts/motors. These carefully chosen materials were often linked to themes in his work. The title work Winged (1999) was “cold cast” in “bonded” bronze, a material made from metal powder and resin. Bonded bronze became popular in the 1990’s and was increasingly used by artists. The material gave the appearance of bronze without the costs associated with a foundry and the raw materials themselves, while affording direct control over the final product. Richards referred to himself as an “alchemist” for this use of “resin instead of bronze.” For him, the use of bonded bronze was also a play on the significance and permanence of bronze monuments.

Richards experimented with finishes, ratios of materials, hollow versus solid sculpture construction and variable use of armatures. Examination of the works revealed a progression in his use of these materials. Surprising corrosion patterns were observed in the bonded bronze. Differential thickness of resin, surface flaws and vacancies and incomplete coverage of complex molds and forms contributed to some of the condition issues. Happily, in 2017, Winged was purchased by the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, ensuring that the object could be properly cared for and studied further. This paper will explore Richards’ use of bonded bronze and some of the challenges it presents for conservators during treatment.

Speakers
avatar for Anne Léculier King

Anne Léculier King

Conservator, Artifact Conservation
Anne Léculier King is a Professional Associate member of the American Institute for Conservation (AIC). Anne obtained her degree in the Conservation of Cultural Materials from Canberra University, Australia in 1993 where she specialized in Objects Conservation. She has held positions... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Ainslie Harrison-[Fellow]

Ainslie Harrison-[Fellow]

Assistant Conservator, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
Ainslie Harrison is an Assistant Objects Conservator at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and previously worked at the National Museum of American History as a project conservator. She received her MA in Art Conservation from Queen’s University in 2008 and went on to hold fellowships... Read More →
avatar for Eugenie Milroy

Eugenie Milroy

Conservator, AM Art Conservation LLC
Eugenie Milroy is a Professional Associate member of the American Institute for Conservation with over 20 years of museum and conservation experience. She has held positions at the American Museum of Natural History, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Brooklyn Museum of Art... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Paintings) An American in Amsterdam – The relevance of the Louis Pomerantz Papers for the conservation history of the paintings collection at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam
During her three-year research project into the conservation history of the paintings collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, the author discovered that the American conservator Louis Pomerantz (1919-1988) began his career in 1950, in the paintings conservation studio of the Rijksmuseum. Here Pomerantz learned the profession from chief conservator Henricus Hubertus Mertens (1905-1981). During this period, Pomerantz kept three notebooks, which are now kept at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art in Washington. The significance of these notebooks can hardly be overestimated, since Mertens did not keep any conservation documentation apart from occasional handwritten notes underneath or on the reverse of treatment photographs during his 40-year career at the Rijksmuseum. And such treatment photographs were only taken for very important paintings, or for paintings from outside the collection. The Pomerantz notebooks contain typed information as well as many drawings and photographs. They show the choice of materials and methods used to treat paintings although without explanation as to why one type of treatment is preferred over another. Indirectly, they demonstrate how the studio was run. Pomerantz also visited other departments, writing down various recipes, for example different glues used in furniture, paper, ceramic or glass conservation. Mertens had started working in the Museum in 1930. He was a young artist from the South of the Netherlands, with – as far as we know now – little knowledge about conservation. He seems to have learned the profession in the Museum as he went along. Shortly after the second World War, he treated Rembrandt’s iconic painting The Night Watch (1642), gaining an international reputation as the specialist in the treatment of Rembrandt paintings. After the war, the conservation department grew in size – before the war it had just been Mertens and a liner called Jenner – with Mertens as chief conservator. Between October 1950 to August 1951, Pomerantz did his one-year training there. This paper explores the relevance of this Amsterdam-America connection, both for the paintings conservation department of the Rijksmuseum, but also for the conservation practice in the United States. With the 2018 theme Material Matters in mind, it is a sad truth that in studying the material side of paintings, or any art object for that matter, conservation history is often forgotten, or discarded as insignificant. However, the materials and methods used in the former conservation treatments often play a very important role in the current appearance of paintings, as well in degradation processes of the original materials. When we say ‘materials matter’, we must realize that this includes conservation materials from the past. As an example of material that matters, the method of the wax-resin lining technique will be described. Pomerantz in his notebooks pays extra attention to this technique, which is also called the ‘Dutch’ method.

Speakers
avatar for Dr. Esther van Duijn

Dr. Esther van Duijn

Paintings conservator / researcher, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
In 1996 Esther van Duijn finished her Art History study at the University of Utrecht with a M.A. During the subsequent five-year training program for paintings conservation at the Stichting Restauratie Atelier Limburg in Maastricht, the history of her own profession turned into... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Research and Technical Studies) Investigating Conservation Materials for Painted PMMA: Comparing Aging Environment Impact with Nano Thermal Analysis
Nano Thermal Analysis (nano-TA) and Dynamic Load Thermal Mechanical Analysis (DL TMA) were used to investigate glass transition temperature (Tg) behaviour of aged butyl methacrylate resins proposed as conservation materials for painted PMMA. Samples of the resin mixture 1:1 Paraloid B-67 / Paraloid F-10 (poly isobutyl methacrylate / poly n butyl methacrylate, or piBMA / pnBMA) were aged in six environments involving cycles of UV filtered museum light, or elevated temperatures, and stored with the control samples in dark ambient conditions for 20 years.

Nano-TA is useful when characterizing multi-layered polymer films and varnish mediums. The technique allows local characterization of thermal properties at nanoscale resolution, which is beneficial when investigating photo-degradation of surfaces, and differences between surface Tg and sample-averaged Tg from bulk material. The nano thermal probe enables rapid multiple measurements, 40 in this study, to characterize the sample surface; and while the probe will alter the surface locally at the nanoscale, unlike bulk thermal analysis techniques, the samples are not destroyed.

Nano-TA revealed a trend in the surface Tg of the BMA medium related to the aging environments, even though there were no apparent changes to the appearance, color, or transparency of the samples; DL TMA identified a similar trend in the sample-averaged Tg of the bulk material. The Tg of two sets of samples presents a compelling warning when considering BMA mediums for use as conservation materials for painted PMMA. The samples exposed to ambient levels of artificial museum light for 16 weeks had a higher Tg than the dark-aged control samples. The samples exposed to UV filtered sunlight through a museum window for 14 weeks had a higher Tg than samples exposed to an equivalent dose of artificial museum light. The rise in Tg of these samples suggests photo-degradation, increased polymer cross-linking, decreased solubility, and altered long-term stability after a relatively short period of light exposure equivalent to the length of a temporary exhibition in a museum or historic property. The apparent increase in Tg of the aged BMA samples suggests long-term instability and sensitivity to museum lighting and elevated temperatures, which are properties that may influence conservation applications on painted PMMA. The apparent association between increased Tg and environmental conditions may prove useful also in the development of preservation strategies for art and design containing BMA mediums.

In this study, nano-TA contributed to the understanding of BMA aging when used as an artists’ or conservation material, and to the development of assessment methodologies and preservation strategies involving artificial and natural aging.

Speakers
avatar for Donald Sale

Donald Sale

Art Conservation & Research, Art Conservation & Research
Don is an accredited conservator of ICON (UK) involved in collaborative research and museum projects, advising and investigating aging, conservation, and repair materials for plastics in art and design, advising on collections care and display, and the conservation of contemporary... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Dr. Angelica Bartoletti

Dr. Angelica Bartoletti

Research Conservation Scientist, Tate
Dr Angelica Bartoletti is a conservation scientist at TATE for the NANORESTART project. She has completed her PhD at University College London (UCL). Her research interests include the evaluation of the impact of traditional and innovative conservation treatments for cellulose and... Read More →
avatar for Dr Laurant Bozec

Dr Laurant Bozec

Associate Professor in Biophysics and Nanometrology, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London
Laurent Bozec is Associate Professor in Biophysics and Nanometrology at the Eastman Dental Institute, University College London. The major part of his research portfolio involves the characterisation at the nanoscale of connective and mineralised tissues in view to improve both... Read More →
avatar for Dr. Marianne Odlyha

Dr. Marianne Odlyha

Director of Physical Sciences Programme, Thermal Analysis Laboratory Manager Conservation and Art Preservation Laboratory Academic Lead, Department of Biological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Textiles) Taking the strain: Strain monitoring to inform tapestry conservation and display
An innovative research project at the University of Glasgow, From the Golden Age to the Digital Age: Modelling and Monitoring Historic Tapestries, is using techniques from the field of engineering to provide information on conservation techniques and display methods for tapestry. While textile conservation procedures grew out of traditional repair techniques, since the 1960s the field has been characterised by a more scientific approach including a greater understanding of textile properties, the use of new materials and more refined conservation techniques. However to date there has been only a small amount of research into the physical and mechanical properties of historic textiles or their associated support materials. This project builds on work at the University of Southampton which showed that digital image correlation can be used to give highly visual information on the strain experienced by tapestries on display – strain maps can indicate areas at highest risk of damage and inform decisions about conservation treatments. As different traditions of tapestry conservation across Europe and the USA employ a range of different stitching methods, our current project is applying this technology to compare the effectiveness of a range of interventive treatments. This will provide tapestry conservators with additional data to complement visual information from the tapestry and to help them in selecting appropriate treatments. The researchers are also looking at tapestry display methods, including the use of slanted supports, which are becoming much more common for tapestry in Europe. Testing will demonstrate the degree of support provided by the slant, and the role of friction from the material covering the slanted support. The paper will report on the most recent project results, comparing data from model tapestries, and building on work to date which is already showing unexpected effects of hanging tapestries from Velcro® hook and loop fastener. The project team, from the Centre for Textile Conservation and Technical Art History and the School of Engineering in Glasgow, are working closely with textile conservators from Glasgow Museums as they prepare tapestries for display in the refurbished Burrell Collection in 2020. We have recently carried out monitoring of a 16th century tapestry before and after conservation treatment, and the results will be included in the discussion. A newly woven tapestry at Stirling Castle – one of a set modelled on the Unicorn tapestries in the Metropolitan Museum of Art - is also being monitored over a period of years, and this is informing improvements in the monitoring technique.

Speakers
avatar for Frances Lennard

Frances Lennard

Professor of Textile Conservation, University Of Glasgow
Frances Lennard is the Director of the Centre for Textile Conservation and Technical Art History at the University of Glasgow and leads the MPhil Textile Conservation programme. She was previously the Programme Leader of the MA Textile Conservation at the Textile Conservation Centre... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Maggie Dobbie

Maggie Dobbie

Textile Conservator, Glasgow Museums
Maggie Dobbie is a textile conservator at Glasgow Museums, following a career in textile conservation at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:00am

(Wooden Artifacts) Tilia and Tilt-A-Jet: abrasive jet-machining towards the treatment and re-mounting of a Grinling Gibbons overmantel
A wooden overmantel by English master sculptor Grinling Gibbons (1648-1721) in the collection of the Cleveland Museum of Art was studied and treated in preparation for its exhibition in the museum’s British Galleries, the first time it will be on display in nearly a decade. The overmantel, an assemblage of limewood carvings imitating flowers, fruits, and foliage, is part of a larger group of decorative carvings made in 1675-1677 for Cassiobury Park, the country house of the first Earl of Essex near London. Cassiobury is notable for being among the first historic homes in England to feature what would become Gibbons’ signature style of contrasting light-colored bare wood carvings nailed directly onto dark oak paneling, highly novel at the time. The goal of examination and treatment was to stabilize the overmantel for installation and to regain some of the surface qualities that made Gibbons’ carvings so innovative. Measuring nearly 8 ft2 when assembled, the large overmantel was in poor condition both structurally and superficially, in part due to its having been previously mounted onto a painted quarter-inch plywood backing. The old mounting system was visually distracting and the long, thin boards flexed during transport and installation, causing the sections of the limewood carving – some of which were only attached to one another by a single nail – to grind against one another. Moreover, installation required placing drills in between carved sections in a way described by one art handler as “terrifying.” The surface was darkened, unevenly glossy, grimy overall and featured multiple mismatched replacement pieces. Examination and research into the history of the carvings revealed multiple campaigns of coatings, strippings, and re-coatings, as well as at least one instance of complete disassembly and rearrangement of the individual sections. The treatment allowed conservators the opportunity to perform materials analysis on the carvings, including wood identification through cross-section analysis, and analysis of the coating layers through cross-section, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy paired with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Treatment of the surface involved an overall cleaning and gloss reduction, while structural treatments included separating large swags into smaller sections, securing loose elements, consolidation, and the replacement of some missing parts of the carving. After the carvings were removed from their old mounts, a new mounting system was developed in collaboration with the Larry Sears and Sally Zlotnick Sears think[box] center at the campus of Case Western Reserve University. High-resolution images of the carvings’ versos were taken and used to create two-dimensional digital mount patterns in Adobe Illustrator. The authors trained with think[box] staff to operate the center’s new OMAX 5555 abrasive waterjet cutter to design and cut precisely-shaped mounts from 1/8th-inch thick aluminum. The new mounting system allows the large carvings to be more easily moved and installed and are nearly invisible to the viewer on display, permitting the work to regain its original, nailed-to-the-wall aesthetic.

Speakers
avatar for Karen Bishop

Karen Bishop

Fellow, Garman Art Conservation Department State University of New York College at Buffalo
Karen Bishop is a second-year graduate fellow in Objects Conservation in the Patricia H. and Richard E. Garman Art Conservation Department at the State University of New York College at Buffalo. Last summer, Karen was the Isobel Rutherford graduate objects conservation intern at the... Read More →
avatar for Mary Wilcop

Mary Wilcop

Fellow in Objects Conservation, Yale University Art Gallery
Mary Wilcop is the Fellow in Objects Conservation at the Yale University Art Gallery. She was previously a third-year graduate intern in Objects Conservation at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C. Mary received her M.A./C.A.S. in Art Conservation... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Marcus Brathwaite

Marcus Brathwaite

Fabrication Manager, think[box]
Marcus Brathwaite, Fabrication Manager of think[box], graduated from the Cleveland Institute of Art in 2013 with a B.F.A. in Ceramics. He approaches the operations of a makerspace from the perspective of a designer. In collaboration with his team, machines, tools, spacial layout... Read More →
avatar for Beth Edelstein

Beth Edelstein

Conservator of Objects, Cleveland Museum of Art
Beth Edelstein is currently Conservator of Objects at the Cleveland Museum of Art. Previously, she was an Associate Conservator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, focusing on the Arts of Africa, Oceania and the Americas. Beth earned her M.A. from the Conservation Center, Institute... Read More →
avatar for Colleen E. Snyder

Colleen E. Snyder

Conservator, Cleveland Museum of Art
Colleen Snyder received her B.A. in Mediterranean Archaeology from the University at Buffalo and went on to complete her M.A. in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College in 2008. Colleen is currently an Assistant Conservator of Objects at the Cleveland Museum of Art, where she... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:00am - 11:30am
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Electronic Media) Unsustainable digital collections
This paper analyzes how in the context of Mexican museums, the lack of policies, frameworks and strategic planning has led to the creation of unsustainable cultural digital collections. It focuses on the challenges in rescuing the digital collection “Bienal Internacional de Poesía Visual y Experimental” [Biennale of Visual and Experimental Poetry], held at the Mediateque of the Museo Universitario del Chopo. The Mexican artists Araceli Zúñiga y César Espinosa organized the International Biennales of Visual and Experimental Poetry between 1985 and 2009. These events brought together practitioners from all over the world whose work is placed at the intersections of the fields of contemporary visual writing, copy art, concrete music, mail art and performance. Throughout the years, Zúñiga and Espinosa became interested in creating a “memory” of these events. Therefore, they started to gather videos, mail art works, photography, artistic electrography, from each event. The collection was stored at their house and classified and organized by the artists themselves. Through the years, the collection became a key source for researching and tracing the development of alternative and experimental art practices in Mexico. Given the significance of this collection and with the aim of preserving and providing greater access to its contents, Zúñiga and Espinosa agreed with the Museo Universitario del Chopo in digitizing the materials and donating a digital version to be included in the collection of the museum. Over 2,000 artworks were digitized. In 2015 the museum received a grant to put these contents online. However, during the development of the project we realized that most of the digital objects were unstable. Given this situation, the project focused on rescuing this digital collection from the oblivion. The project brought to light several concerns, such as the lack of a digital preservation planning, the deficient use of metadata standards, the shortage of expertise, and more importantly, the lack of institutional policies to create sustainable digital collections. The museum´s team did not follow clear guidelines, standards and best practices for the creation of digital objects and their subsequence management. Thus affecting the ability to read, access and understand the digital materials. Furthermore, we became aware that several cultural institutions in Mexico shared this scenario. The project’s findings show, that numerous museums undertake digitalization-driven projects without following a strategic plan thus resulting in unsustainable digital cultural collections. Fortunately, in 2016 three major initiatives aimed at overseeing the creation and management of cultural digital collections emerged. Working in close collaboration with these platforms, “Metadata for the Mexican Cultural Heritage”, “Cultural National Agenda for Digital Projects” and “Digital Preservation Group”, we developed a plan for rescue and long-term access to the collection of Bienal Internacional de Poesía Visual Experimental.

Speakers
avatar for Jo Ana Morfin

Jo Ana Morfin

Conservator, Museo Universitario del Chopo
Jo Ana holds a degree in Cultural Heritage Restoration from the National School of Conservation (ENCRyM) in Mexico City. In 2008 she obtained her Master’s degree in Curating from Sunderland University in U.K.; her research focuses on curatorial strategies for documenting and archiving... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 11:45am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Electronic Media) What Happened When? Creating Retroactive Iteration Reports for Time-based Media Artworks
Since 1999, the Metropolitan Museum of Art (The Met) has been building their collection of time-based media art. In recent years The Met has increasingly acquired time-based media, and the Museum currently holds 250 artworks in its collection. The Met established a Time-Based Media Working Group in 2001, which now comprises conservators, collection managers, curators, archivists, registrars, technology experts, and other allied museum professionals. In the past few years the Museum has spearheaded initiatives, collaborations, programs and activities surrounding the unique preservation needs of the collection, including engaging the Museum’s first Fellow in the conservation of time-based media art.

A current best practice in the documentation of time-based media artworks is to create iteration reports, which document the way that a variable artwork is displayed in a specific exhibition. Although this is best conducted at the time of exhibition, the author, the incoming Fellow, was challenged to create retroactive iteration reports for past exhibitions of works in the collection. This project provides the Museum with an opportunity to create a complete history of exhibiting time-based media art at the Museum and in some cases also prior.

In this paper the author presents the research involved in creating iteration reports for past exhibitions. Cross-departmental collaboration is key, as conservation relies on conversations and interviews with a wide range of staff members involved in the installation of the works. In addition, this project requires creative methods for external research to provide photographic and video documentation of the artworks in the Museum’s collection. Creating these reports proved challenging, as the author was not present for the installation, and was relying on secondary sources and prior documentation.

Unique information was gained through research into other fields. The author investigated scientific research related to the formation and recall of human memories, in an effort to overcome challenges posed by eyewitness accounts. This included researching publications related to the improvement of a subject’s recall of past events.The results of this research will be demonstrated in case studies from artworks in The Met’s collection, as well as a discussion of lessons learned and practical advice gained throughout the project. This paper will be of particular interest to museums and professionals who are starting to address the conservation needs of time-based media artworks in their collections.

Speakers
avatar for Alexandra Nichols

Alexandra Nichols

Sherman Fairchild Foundation Fellow, Photograph Conservation Department, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Alexandra Nichols is a Sherman Fairchild Foundation Fellow at the Metropolitan Museum of Art focusing on the conservation of time-based media art. Prior to The Met she completed a Samuel H. Kress Foundation Fellowship in Time-based Media at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 2016... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 11:45am
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Architecture) Classification of Early Building Campaigns Using Petrographic Examination of the Historic Masonry Found at the Josiah Benner Farm, Gettysburg, PA
This study focused on using petrographic analysis of brick located at the Josiah Benner Farm in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania to develop a more complete understanding of the architectural development of the Josiah Benner Farm and its involvement in the Battle of Gettysburg. Completed in 1862, the Benner Farm is significant for its involvement in the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg. The Benner Farmhouse provided cover for Union Soldiers and served as a field hospital while also being shot, shelled by artillery, and set afire. The Benner Family rebuilt the farmhouse soon after the battle and the farm remained in private ownership for the next 149 years before being acquired by Gettysburg National Military Park. Despite the farm’s proximity to one of the best documented battle sites in the United States, there is little archival information surrounding the farm. Traditional building practices in Southeastern Pennsylvania reused building materials where possible, further obscuring potential evidence related to the house’s involvement in the Battle of Gettysburg. As a result, traditional physical investigation was unable to shed light on the early years of the farm’s history. Petrographic analysis, primarily using microscopic evaluation and thin-section petrography, was performed on raw samples and polished thin-sections of historic masonry that were removed from both the farmhouse and the springhouse on the property. Emphasis focused on classifying manufacturing techniques, clay matrix, and source aggregate of each sample. This would presumably allow investigators to group similarly aged brick into unique clusters. Samples were taken across the structure and from interior locations whenever possible to avoid confusion from weathering forces. Additionally, several other samples from other regional structures were taken for comparison. Ultimately, six different groups of historic brick were identified, suggesting that the Benner Farm underwent significant rebuilding during its early history.

Speakers
avatar for Amy Elizabeth Uebel

Amy Elizabeth Uebel

Architectural Conservator, Historic Architecture, Conservation & Engineering Center (HACE)
Amy Elizabeth joined the WLCC after completing her MSHP from the Clemson University/College of Charleston Graduate Program in Historic Preservation. Her work involves developing 3D scanning methods and supporting conservation projects involving architectural and large-scale metal... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Book and Paper) Screenprint on Plastic (Some assembly required). A Case Study of Joe Tilson's "The Software Chart" 1968
By the beginning of the sixties, contemporary printmaking in the Americas and in Europe was already in the midst of a renaissance. Artists and printers actively began to collaborate to produce artworks which challenged traditional concepts of printmaking. The boundaries of size, materials, content and production were virtually obliterated and resulted in some of the most unique, affordable, and accessible art produced at the time. “The Software Chart”, 1968 by British artist Joe Tilson is a screenprint on plastic printed by the Kelpra Studio, leaders of the era in the production of artist's screen printing in London, England. The five colour screen printed image appropriated from print media and referencing a major international event, is printed on plastic (noted as Astrafoil) and backed with a reflective surfaced plastic (noted as Lumaline). Print and backing were adhered to each other with double sided masking tape, mounted to card and framed in a shallow metal frame. Printed and produced in an edition of 150, most known versions of this print assembly exhibit severe pressure related distortions and offgassing (vinegar odour). The print was not considered to be in exhibitable condition and came to the conservation department for review. This presentation will describe in detail the print history and concept, components, condition issues, material analysis, treatment stages, degree of treatment success, and the many issues relating to possible reconstruction, final presentation and long term prognosis.

Speakers
avatar for Joan Weir

Joan Weir

Conservator, Works on Paper, Art Gallery of Ontario
Joan Weir has been Conservator, Works on Paper at the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada for the past fifteen years and is a graduate of the Queen's University Kingston, Ontario Art Conservation Program. She has an undergraduate degree in fine art practice from Nova Scotia College... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Vincent Dion

Vincent Dion

Conservator-Methodologist, ERM - Estonian National Museum
Vincent Dion graduated from the Master in Art Conservation program at Queen's University in 2016 with a specialization in works on paper and new media. Subsequently, his interest in modern materials and background studies in chemistry led him to join the Modern and Contemporary Art... Read More →
avatar for Eric Henderson

Eric Henderson

Conservation Scientist, Conservation Science Division, Canadian Conservation Institute
Eric Henderson earned a B.Sc. (Hons) in Chemistry from McGill University in 2004 and a Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry from the University of Alberta in 2009, specializing in the synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials. He then undertook a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Objects) Preparing the Apollo 11 Columbia for Its National Tour
The Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum is home to the world’s largest collection of objects related to the history of spaceflight. Spacesuits, personal items, scientific instrumentation, satellites and entire spacecraft make up this inspiring collection.The Apollo 11 Command Module Columbia stands out as the most significant artifact, representing one of mankind’s most remarkable achievements of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth. The last time Columbia traveled throughout the United States was in 1970, where it embarked on a 50-State Tour following the moon landing in 1969. Almost 50 years later, this historic spacecraft that carried astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins to the Moon and back, is headed out on the road for a second nationwide tour. Columbia was built for a single mission and while it was designed to withstand the rigors of launch and re-entry, 50 years later many of its materials are showing signs of deterioration. For the first time since the Smithsonian acquired the spacecraft in 1972, conservators had the opportunity to examine the materials, take an-depth look at the engineering and technology and to re-examine the history of the object. This analysis served to enhance the curatorial and historical record, guided the conservation treatment and informed the exhibition design. This paper will present a technical study of the Command Module, illustrating its design, engineering and use of materials while presenting its conservation challenges. Astronaut graffiti and a study of the many features of this spacecraft will help humanize the artifact that traveled nearly a million miles in 8 days. Today, shipping an iconic artifact of this scale across the country should be a comparatively simple task but it still proved to be a logistical challenge and required collaboration with a team of experts to design a climate-controlled container, fabricate handling fixtures and provide security and suitable exhibition venues. .

Speakers
avatar for Lisa Young

Lisa Young

Supervisory Conservator, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
Lisa Young has served as objects conservator at the National Air and Space Museum since 2009. She earned her B.Sc. in Conservation at the University of Wales, Cardiff. She has worked at NASM since 1997, where she researched the preservation of spacesuits. From 1999-2006 she was the... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Research and Technical Studies) The use of nano-indentation to mechanically characterize embedded artists’ materials
The Managing Collection Environments initiative at the Getty Conservation Institute focuses on research questions and practical issues relating to the control and management of collection environments in museums. Providing an evidence-base for the effect of environmental conditions on historic materials has long been a challenge for the conservation field, due to both the inherent complexity of the materials and the uncertainty in the mechanisms at play in environmentally-induced change. Understanding the mechanical properties of cultural heritage materials is a fundamental aspect of establishing effective preservation methods. Conventionally, the mechanical characterization of artists’ materials is performed by uniaxial or biaxial tensile testing and typically requires a large quantity of macro-sized samples. Having access to sufficient numbers of historic materials that satisfy this sample size requirement is impractical if not impossible when working with museum collections. As a consequence, the applicability of macro-mechanical testing in the conservation science can be limited. In contrast, small scale engineering techniques such as micro- and nano-indentation allow for the characterization of sub-millimeter samples taken from real works of art, rather than relying wholly upon much larger laboratory-prepared samples intended to mimic historic materials. These engineering techniques open a new perspective on the systematic analysis of the probabilistic distribution of mechanical properties of artists’ materials. They also allow for the analysis of ageing factors which can alter the mechanical properties of a material. The primary focus of this study is the application of micro- and nano-indentation to investigate the effect of an embedding process on the mechanical properties of cross-sectional samples of acrylic-based paint. As a precursor to the analysis of historic samples, a systematic investigation of embedded samples was performed to assess the role of sample size, surface roughness and structural compliance of the embedding resin. Material characterization was conducted at ambient laboratory conditions using an Ultra-High Resolution Nanoindentation Tester (Anton Paar) equipped with a Berkovich (three-sided pyramidal) diamond indenter. Load–displacement tests were carried out on embedded and free-film samples to evaluate the quasi-static and dynamic behavior of the acrylic-based paint to better understand its deformation response. Mechanical parameters which are used for describing the stiffness of a material, such as the elastic behavior of a material (storage modulus) and the ability of the material to deform under constant load (creep), were obtained for cross-sectional samples and compared with results for the acrylic free-film. Results indicate that instrumented indentation can be successfully used as a stepping stone towards an improved understanding of mechanical properties of embedded artists’ materials and, consequently, allow one to better define the conservation needs of art objects.

Speakers
avatar for Ashley Freeman

Ashley Freeman

Research Lab Associate, Getty Conservation Institute
Ashley Freeman joined the GCI in 2016 to work on the Managing Collections Environments Initiative. She graduated from Queen's University with a M.A.C. in Conservation Science, received a study certificate for restoration and conservation from the Lorenzo de' Medici, MS in Chemistry... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Vincent L. Beltran

Vincent L. Beltran

Assistant Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Vincent Beltran joined GCI Science in 2002. He has been an active participant in a range of research projects including the mechanical characterization of historic materials, the effect of reduced oxygen environments on color change, evaluations of packing case performance during... Read More →
avatar for Michał Lukomski

Michał Lukomski

Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Dr. Michał Lukomski is head of Preventive Conservation research, which assesses the effects of environmental conditions and lighting on museum objects. He received his PhD in physics from the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland, in 2003 and completed his postdoctorate fellowship... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Textiles) A bridge between Science and Archaeology in studying Tutankhamun's Hassock
A unique category of bead-work, found in the tomb of Tutankhamun, the hassock, or small pillows. The footstool was made of cloth filled with bran. On the cloth an elaborate pattern of bead-work, in blue, green, red, yellow and white disc beads. The composition and the technology of the hassocks are the most complex of Egyptian bead-work. This hassock presents the analysis of Social aspects in this period from interesting by decoration of bead-work and also the unique technological solutions. The aim of our research first is to describe the beading techniques from the analysis of the fabrication and pattern of bead-work, also to give an insight in time spent in production and on the effort put into this hassock. The identification of botanic remains assemblage from hassock. Photographic documentation with Dino-Lite Digital Microscope (USB) for beads and bran remains, also drawing and illustration was used to document the materials used, the pattern, the beading technique and type of beads used in a beaded fabric. Dino-Lite Digital Microscope (USB) talks all measurements diameter, thickness, length and width for both beads and bran remains.Archaeopotanic study is very important in this part of our research which gives us more details about the technology and bran used in footstool in the new kingdom which was identified from Hordeum Species. Multispectral imaging (MSI) technique was used on the different color beads, allowing us to analyze it non-destructively and with great results from each color. Multiple analytical and examination techniques were carried out on the beads and bran, such as optical light microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) ,X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF). pXRF is best suited to minor and trace elements for this XRF is used to determine the elemental composition of the beads and to infer their original color. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is able to distinguish the glass phase from the texture of the grains, giving information on the thickness of the glaze and of the buffer layer. Optical microscope gives us more details about the thickness and characterization of glaze layer.

Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Wooden Artifacts) An Experimental and Practical Study of Some Gap-Fillers for wood and wooden antiquities
Experiments and tests have been conducted to test some gap-fillers to determine their suitability for restoration of archaeological wood, wooden objects, and decorated wooden antiquities (such as carved, incised, engraved, turned and paneled wooden antiquities and artifacts, which include furniture, sculpture, frames, iconostasis ...etc.). 1. The Tested Materials: The tested gap-filler includes several compounds of filler materials and binding materials: 1. Filler materials such as Calcium Carbonate powder, Zinc Oxide powder and Beech wood dust. 2. Binding materials such as animal glue, Arabic Gum, Poly Vinyl Acetate emulsion, Paraloid (Acryloid) B72, Primal AC 33, Araldite PY 1092 with hardener HY 1092, Silicons. The experiments have been applied to several decorated wood species such as Teak, Sidder, Pine and Beech. 2. The Testing Work: The testing includes studying the materials properties such as: 1. The handling behaviors during and after application such as easiness of preparation, easiness of shaping, ability of adherence to application tools, shape stability, setting time, shrinkage, cracking and changing in color after dryness. 2. The carving, cutting and sanding ability after dryness. 3. The painting, coloring & dyeing ability (with different sorts of colors and dyes such as watercolors, water dyes and alcohol dyes) before & after sanding. 4. The pH, weight and mechanical properties such as compression, tension and static bending (modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity) before & after accelerated heat ageing. 5. The effects of the accelerated heat aging to the gap-filler and its properties such as mechanical properties and weight, as well as studying the changes to the tested materials regarding dehydration, cracking, brashness & fragileness, erosion & corrosion and changing in color. 3. Results and Conclusions: The best results were achieved using a gap-filler consists of “Beech wood dust as a filler, and Primal AC 33 as a binding material”, that appeared to be most useful for restoring the gaps, holes and cracks and for creating replacement for missing wooden details. This compound are almost neutral (pH = 6. 8 - 7.3 and became 6.6 – 6.9 after accelerated heat ageing that has been done at 110˚ for one month). It is also easy to be shaped, does not flow during application, good to be treated with tools as spatula and to hold a required shape. In the same time, it has good setting time (20-25 minutes); and when dry; it does not color, discolor or disfigure the wood in contact with it and easy to alter its appearance by carving, sanding and painting. It does not cracked or shrunk, does not discolor, it is easy to be compressed (1.900 (kPa) and became 1.800 (kPa) after accelerated heat ageing) and it is easy to be removed when required. The chosen gap-filler have been used in restoration of some wooden antiquities, filling of gaps holes and cracks and for creating replacement for missing wooden details. In this paper, the experimental work conducted with the complete results and examples of the practical applications will be described in details with comparative and analysis display.

Speakers
avatar for Dr. Hany Hanna

Dr. Hany Hanna

Director General of Conservation, Helwan, El-Saf and Atfeh Sector, Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA), Ministry of Antiquities, Egypt.
I have: - Ph.D. Degree in conservation, (with the first class honor), in May 2003. - Master Science degree in conservation, (Grade Excellent), in May 1998. - Bachelor Degree in Theology, (Grade: Excellent), in May 1990. - Bachelor Degree in conservation, (Grade very good), in May... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 12:00pm
Kingwood Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

11:30am

(Paintings) Paintings Conservation Tips Session
Saturday June 2, 2018 11:30am - 12:30pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

12:00pm

(Electronic Media) Getting It On Record: Stabilization, Enhanced Imaging, and Documentation of Archival Instantaneous Audio Discs
This case study presents some of the new ways conservation documentation images can serve multiple functions outside of direct treatment. For example, the enhanced images can provide data for archival description and cataloging, create an augmented research experience when paired with digitized content, and serve as a visual lexicon for material deficiencies and condition issues prevalent among instantaneous discs. In 1987, the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage at the Smithsonian Institution acquired over 4,000 unique audio discs as part of its acquisition of the New York-based label Folkways Records & Service Corporation. These archival recordings represent a sizable cross section of the early- to mid-20th-century recordable discs distributed and used throughout the United States.
Nearly 70 years after their creation, many of the recordings display a range of condition issues not uncommon to the medium including physical damage, delamination, plasticizer leakage, warping, crazing, and evidence of biological growth. In 2017, media conservators and technicians conducted conservation documentation and rehousing to assess, stabilize, and identify treatment priorities for each disc. Their documentation provided archivists with a framework for establishing holistic treatment plans and preservation digitization priorities. As part of this project, high-resolution digital images were created using efficient workflows to provide enhanced views of each disc to highlight their condition and document unique surface features such as etched-in song titles, performer names, matrix numbers, and intentional groove destruction. In addition, it will explore practical housing and storage strategies, including custom solutions for severely deteriorated and broken instantaneous discs. This presentation will be of particular interest to time-based media conservators, preservation specialists, archivists, and other cultural heritage professionals working with legacy recorded sound media.


Speakers
avatar for Dave Walker

Dave Walker

Audiovisual Archivist, Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage
Dave Walker serves as Audiovisual Archivist at the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections and specializes in the conservation, preservation, and access to analog AV media.


Saturday June 2, 2018 12:00pm - 12:15pm
Briargrove Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Architecture) Contour Scaling in Bluestone: An Investigation of Potential Causes Through Microscopy
Bluestone, the common name given to a form of blue-colored feldspathic sandstone or greywacke quarried in Pennsylvania, New York, and Newfoundland, is now and was historically a popular building stone in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. While generally durable, its laminar structure makes it susceptible to delamination, or the separation of layers of stone along their natural bedding planes. Examples of delaminating bluestone are easily found among historic buildings and monuments where the material was used. The nature of this form of deterioration has been well studied. However, a much less ubiquitous and less understood form of surface loss may also occur. In certain conditions, the stone may develop a hardened outer surface crust, as thick as 1 to 2 cm, which runs both parallel and perpendicular to bedding planes. This outer crust invariably detaches from the body of stone in a phenomenon known as case hardening or contour scaling. Contour scaling has been attributed to a variety of processes, such as precipitation of secondary minerals, hygroscopic swelling of constituent clays, thermal cycling, etc. This paper will discuss the use of microscopy in exploring the chemical and mineralogical alterations contributing to contour scaling in bluestone. This information may also be applied to understand scaling in other clay-bearing or laminated stone types. Applications for the presented research include diagnosis of stone deterioration in the field and development of effective conservation treatments. Examples will be drawn from New York City’s Highbridge Park and presented with photomicrographs of affected stones in thin-section.

Speakers
avatar for Edward G. FitzGerald-[PA]

Edward G. FitzGerald-[PA]

Senior Architectural Conservator, Jablonski Building Conservation, Inc.
Edward G. FitzGerald is a Senior Architectural Conservator with Jablonski Building Conservation, Inc. in New York City where he works on projects ranging in size from furniture to skyscrapers. FitzGerald’s specialties include the conservation of wood and masonry materials. He previously... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Book and Paper + Electronic Media) Caring for Electrophotographic Art: A Case Study of the Pati Hill Archives at Arcadia University
This paper details a preservation strategy for the long-term care of electrophotographic art in museum and archival collections, using the Pati Hill Archives at Arcadia University as a case study. In 2016, Arcadia University was gifted copy artist Pati Hill’s archives and original prints - and along with them an interesting preservation challenge. Hill was one of the most prolific electrophotographic artists of the late 20th century, and her prints were almost exclusively produced using the black and white photocopiers manufactured for office use from the 1970s through the 1990s. Her working process pushed the mechanical capabilities of the copier; she overfed the machine with black powdered toner to produce what she called “stars,” areas where a very dense black toner layer was broken up by spots in which the toner particles did not fully adhere. Hill’s manipulation of the amount of toner applied to her prints is a trait which separates her from many other copy artists, and is also key to identifying the order in which multiple prints of the same object were produced. This makes it especially crucial that the toner layers of her prints are prevented from deteriorating over time. Electrophotographic prints (also known as photocopies, Xeroxes, and xerographs) are extremely common in archival document collections, where they are often considered secondary resources or copies of primary source material. However, there is a dearth of preservation literature providing a protocol for their care and preventive conservation as art objects. This paper will discuss the history and technology of the electrophotographic process, as well as risks and potential agents of deterioration to both the paper support and toner layer(s). Hill’s materials, working methods, presentation choices, and curatorial decisions are analyzed in the context of potential preservation challenges, including issues impacting future conservation treatment. The paper concludes with recommendations for practical steps toward the preservation of electrophotographic prints, including guidelines for housing and storage, environment, light exposure, conservation treatment, and exhibition.

Speakers
avatar for Gillian Marcus

Gillian Marcus

Preservation Specialist, Documentary Heritage and Preservation Services for New York (CCAHA)
Gillian received her MA in Conservation of Art on Paper from Camberwell College of Arts in London, UK. Prior to joining the staff of DHPSNY, she was the National Endowment for the Humanities Preventive Conservation Fellow at CCAHA. She has worked in several private conservation workshops... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Texas Ballroom E Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Book and Paper) Improved methods of authentication and the resulting shifts in decision-making in parchment conservation
Shifts in decision-making in the conservation of cultural heritage can be understood by browsing the old instructions in conservation and comparing them with our current perception of the results of older conservation treatment and the current ideas of what a conservation measure should be like. Through understanding old methods and material we can estimate the objectives set by conservators in the past and get a better insight into the complex environment of conservation. Technical changes, including better analytical methods and changes in society accompanying them, lead to a different perspective of cultural heritage and to continuous emergence of innovative treatments being adopted to our new objectives and vice versa. One very recent example of technical development relevant to conservation of cultural heritage items is the decoding of proteomes and genomes that helps understand the sources of the skins and use manuscripts as a stock of information. To demonstrate the above we started out with the analysis of Otto Wächter’s ”Restaurierung und Erhaltung von Büchern, Archivalien und Graphiken,” 1982. We narrowed the topic further down to parchment conservation, as new molecular research applies to this area. The question was: which old conservation treatments altered parchment in such a way that information stored in the material was damaged, changed or overlaid and consequently made uninterpretable? If so, could we, with improvements to current methods, deconvolute the data to read the original signal through the conservation overprinting? The choice of the book was determined by two considerations: first, it was very influential in its time; second, it is difficult to interpret if you were not a pupil of Wächter, and one of the authors was his pupil. Since Wächter´s time, our knowledge of the features of material improved greatly and so did our procedure of decision-making in conservation. Our view of old methods changed in a way that allows us to understand that some of them had a significant impact on the information carried by the material, which is considered an added value in research today. The project results made scholars • understand how old methods and materials in conservation changed the historical material; • appreciate different types of biological data that can be recovered, from livestock management, through craft production to the use history of the object, • understand how we might gather and interpret this palimpsest of biological and craft information, such as kind, sex or breed of the animal, the breeding history of the flock or herd, etc. • explore the changes imposed by subsequent conservation and understand how to avoid conservation methods that either overprint with new biological signals or destroy the original ones and identify a conceptual framework for alternative methods; • examine which types of modification induce changes which can be detected and isolated, thereby recovering the original signal; • explore how new methods might fulfill the conservation task without changing the original information carried by the material, show how the new demands on the material side alter the demands in aesthetics in conservation.

Speakers
avatar for Patricia Engel

Patricia Engel

Researcher, University for Continuing Education Krems, Department fuer Bauen und Umwelt, Zentrum fuer Kulturgueterschutz, European Research Centre for Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration
Patricia Engel holds magister, doctorate and habilitation degrees in conservation-restoration of cultural heritage of the universities of Fine Art in Vienna and Warsaw. She worked as assistant professor in Hildesheim HAWK, Germany and from 2010 on is heading the European Research... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Matthew Collins

Matthew Collins

Professor, University of York, BioArCh, Archaeology
Mathew Collins completed a degree in Marine Zoology, then a PhD in Geology before Fellowships in Chemistry and Biochemistry and postdoctoral research in Biogeochemistry. He first lectured in Biogeochemistry (Newcastle) before moving to York in 2003 to establish BioArCh, an interdisciplinary... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Texas Ballroom D Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Objects) Ghost Lives On: The treatment of Rachel Whiteread's monumental plaster sculpture
The conservation treatment of Rachel Whiteread's monumental plaster sculpture, Ghost, was shaped by many challenging factors: physical size of the object, unstable material properties and construction, available technology, costs, institutional constraints, tempered expectations, ethical boundaries, and artist’s considerations. Ghost is an assembled, four-sided structure comprised of 86 plaster panels attached to a steel armature. The iconic sculpture is a negative cast of an entire room in a Victorian townhouse in London, and is Whiteread’s best-known work. To prepare for a retrospective exhibition in fall 2018, a trial installation and examination was scheduled for early 2016. In the course of unpacking, one of the keystone plaster panels was found to have cracks such that it could not be installed without jeopardizing the entire structure. Because the damaged panel was on the bottom course that supports all of the panels above, the panel needed to be strengthened and all other elements needed to be re-examined to assess their integrity. Almost half of the 86 panels were found to have cracks.

The primary purpose of the treatment was to ensure that the sculpture be made stable so that the work could be safely exhibited. This was accomplished by improving several distinct but interdependent conditions: the physical stability of each plaster panel, the attachment strength between the fastener and the back of each plaster panel, the security of the panels to the armature, and the overall stability of the supporting armature. The treatment sparked many logistical and aesthetic obstacles due to its structural complexity and monumental scale (approximately 9’ wide, 12’ high, and 10’ deep), and prompted conservators to reach out not only to other departments within the museum but to industrial sources for materials and processes not usually associated with fine art conservation treatment.

Speakers
avatar for Judy L. Ozone-[PA]

Judy L. Ozone-[PA]

Senior Object Conservator, National Gallery of Art
Judy L. Ozone is senior objects conservator at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, where she has been on staff since 1986. She received her BFA from the Rochester Institute of Technology, and her MS from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation. While... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Shelley G. Sturman-[Fellow]

Shelley G. Sturman-[Fellow]

Head of Object Conservation, National Gallery of Art, National Gallery of Art
Shelley Sturman is head of the Object Conservation Department at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. and also teaches a two semester course on Museum Preventive Conservation in the Graduate School at George Washington University. She received her B.A. and M.A. from Brandeis... Read More →
avatar for Andrew Watt

Andrew Watt

Armature Maker/Projects Coordinator, National Gallery of Art
Andrew Watt is an Armature Maker at the National Gallery of Art, Washington. He has been on staff since 2005 and has contributed to hundreds of installations, both of exhibitions and the permanent collection. He received his BA in History from the University of Maryland. | | (Photo: Jonathan... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Paintings) The use of modern paints by the concrete artist Ivan Serpa in artworks of the early 1950’s
This work debates the use of modern paints by the Brazilian concrete artist Ivan Ferreira Serpa (1923-1973) during the early 1950’s as an alternative to explore the constructivism principles in paintings. Two works will be discussed: "Forma em evolução" (1952) and "Quadrados em rítmos resultantes" (1953). Ivan Serpa was born in Rio de Janeiro and explored different painting techniques and materials during his short career. With Mário Pedrosa (1900-1981), the artist was responsible for introducing abstract art in Rio in 1949. He founded an art school for kids and adults in the "Museu de Arte Moderna" (MAM-RJ), created the vanguard movement "Grupo Frente" (1954-1957) and won in the "I Bienal of São Paulo" the “Young Painter Prize”. With "Grupo Frente" he taught precision in geometrical forms but was a prominent defender of the use of colors, in opposition to rigid principles created by the "Grupo Ruptura" (1952-1959) in São Paulo. Serpa's experience as a teacher, a graphic designer and a student in the advertisement course performed at "Fundação Getúlio Vargas" (1946-1948), probably enable him the precision and skills to build his constructive forms.

In "Forma em evolução" (1952) Serpa is possibly interested in bright, pure and translucent colors, as well as precise and flat surfaces, without brushstroke signs. This earlier composition is made of three basic layers: blue (ground layer), black and red. On the blue and red areas, it is visible how the artist applied several layers and possibly used masks to build precise lines and shapes. According to Pedrosa, during this period Serpa experimented industrial paints and brands like “Ripolin”. Serpa confirmed the use of this material because it was stable, self-leveling, and free from stains. On "Quadrados em rítmos resultantes" (1953), instead, the artwork is made by the contrast of vivid and dark colors, glossy and opaque surfaces. The geometrical areas are possibly painted with masking tape. The chemical analysis realized on "Forma em evolução" (1952) and "Quadrados em rítmos resultantes" (1953) revealed the presence of alkyd resin.

This result is consistent with household paints composition in the 1950’s in Brazil. Alkyd paint also had desirable properties for modern artists like Serpa: fast drying, glossy and self-leveling surfaces. Historical research on paint materials and chemical industry in Brazil showed that the importation of Ripolin paints occurred since the beginning of the XX century. Alkyd resins, instead, were imported in the mid-1940 and started to be manufactured in the early 1950’s. However, the availability of alkyd paint is noticed only in the Brazilian market in the mid-1950, suggesting that when the artist produced this group of paintings alkyds weren't available in Brazil. Serpa probably had to mix the resin, pigments, and solvents by himself; the effect of this process could be observed on the bubbles and pores formed on the surface of both paintings. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of Ivan Serpa’s production as well as his artistic intention.

Speakers
avatar for João Henrique Ribeiro Barbosa

João Henrique Ribeiro Barbosa

Substitute Professor, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG)
João Henrique Ribeiro Barbosa has a BA in Cultural Heritage Artifact Conservation and Restoration from the School of Fine Arts at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (EBA-UFMG). He is in the second year of the master's program in Cultural Heritage Preservation offered by School... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Yacy A. Froner

Yacy A. Froner

Associate Professor, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Yacy-Ara Froner has a BA in history from the Federal University of Ouro Preto in Brazil (1988). She has a MA in Social History from the University of São Paulo (1994). She has a Ph.D. in Economic History with an emphasis in Cultural Heritage from the University of São Paulo (2001... Read More →
avatar for Giulia Giovani

Giulia Giovani

Associate Professor, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Associate professor in the Undergraduate Program of Conservation in School of Fine Arts in Federal University of Minas Gerais.
avatar for Alessra Rosado

Alessra Rosado

Adjunct Professor, UFMG School of Fine Arts
Dr. Alessra Rosado is a professor at the UFMG School of Fine Arts. She has a PhD in Art from the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), a MA in Visual Arts from UFMG (2005), a certificate in the Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Properties (CECOR) from the School of Fine... Read More →
avatar for Luiz A  C Souza

Luiz A C Souza

Associate Professor - Coordinator of LACICOR - Conservation Science Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais
Dr. Luiz Souza holds a M.Sc. in Chemistry, with experimental work developed at the IRPA – Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique (Brussels, Belgium, 1986-87), where his work has focused on stone degradation and conservation techniques. The experimental work for his Ph.D. in Chemistry... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston
  • Specialty Tracks Paintings
  • Cost Type Included with registration
  • Abstract ID 13555
  • Authors (in order) João H. R. Barbosa, Luiz A. C. Souza, Giulia V. Giovani, Alessandra Rosado, Yacy A. Froner

2:00pm

(Research and Technical Studies) A Collaborative Study of Sari Dienes’ Plaster Works
Sari Dienes, a highly innovative 20th century female artist working in a range of media, has gone largely unrecognized until recently despite the documented influence she had on her male contemporaries including Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns. Since the recent re-discovery of her impact on the 20th century art scene, museums and collectors have begun to acquire her artwork, including a series of mixed-media pieces utilizing plaster casts of manhole covers. In 2016, the Kunstmuseum Basel purchased Snowflake Circle, while the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (VMFA) acquired Star Circle, with the goal of finally exhibiting this important yet overlooked artist’s work.

As Dienes’ sculptures had not been previously studied, her materials and techniques were almost entirely unknown. Preparation of these artworks for exhibition provided the first ever opportunity to carry out a technical study of Dienes’ plaster cast assemblage pieces. Without published research to refer to, conservators at the Kunstmuseum Basel proposed a collaboration with the VMFA to share information gathered from the study of each of their two works. Conservators at each institution examined their respective artworks and performed a range of analyses including FTIR, XRF, UV imaging, X-Radiography, and microscopy. A broken manhole cover cast from the same series that was housed in the archives of the Sari Dienes’ foundation was also examined. The information gathered from this collaborative study was used to inform two key questions: 1) How do Dienes’ plaster casts fit into a greater art historical context? And 2) How to stabilize these two artworks for exhibition?

While both museums were eager to install their newly acquired Dienes artworks, examination of Star Circle and Snowflake Circle after removal of their gallery frames revealed a range of condition issues affecting their stability, including a bowing polystyrene foam board support and flaking plaster. The collaborative research project guided the stabilization efforts with the goal of finally presenting these works in the museum next to the male artists she inspired.

In addition to aiding in the stabilization of the two artworks, this research also informed the curatorial question regarding the role Dienes played in the adoption of plaster casts as a component in mixed media artworks. Materials analysis and archival research offered new insight into the possible chronology for Dienes’ plaster cast assemblage works, thus helping to elucidate her role in the history of art.

Speakers
avatar for Ainslie Harrison-[Fellow]

Ainslie Harrison-[Fellow]

Assistant Conservator, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
Ainslie Harrison is an Assistant Objects Conservator at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and previously worked at the National Museum of American History as a project conservator. She received her MA in Art Conservation from Queen’s University in 2008 and went on to hold fellowships... Read More →

Co-Authors
AF

Annette Fritsch

Conservator and Restorer of Paintings and Sculptures, Kunstmuseum Basel
Annette Fritsch is a conservator and restorer for paintings and sculptures at the Kunstmuseum Basel. She obtained her diploma in 2006 at the University of Applied Science at Bern. At the Kunstmuseum Basel she works on artworks from after 1945, including paintings, sculptures, and... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Sustainability) Access to Shared Knowledge: Developing a Sustainable Workflow for Archiving Collaborative Engagement Documentation at NMAI’s Conservation Department
Collaborative engagements with Native artists and other community members give conservators insight into the meaning of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and inform conservation practice.  This presentation introduces a newly developed workflow for archiving documentation from such collaborative engagements at the National Museum of American Indian (NMAI) and presents the underlying thought processes and challenges.  Such engagements may happen through consultations, workshops, or place-based education; the goal is to develop long-term relationships.  Over the past two decades, the NMAI Conservation Department has held numerous collaborative events and compiled copious amounts of documentation of the department’s work with Native stakeholders and other experts. Documentation materials include mostly born-digital media such as photographs, transcripts, and audio and visual files. While analog references in form of project binders have been accessible in NMAI’s conservation library, the associated digital media was held on CD’s and a shared network drive - difficult to access, organize, and use.  This project began with an evaluation of these assets, which revealed that although existing documentation is extensive, there are no active protocols to systematize and archive collaborative engagement documentation to ensure maintenance, accessibility, and utility for Native stakeholders, researchers, and the museum.
Developing a standardized protocol for the documentation of NMAI’s conservation consultations and new routines for media production will contribute to a targeted documentation approach that allows for structured outcomes. Utilizing Smithsonian’s Digital Assets Management System (DAMS) to archive those assets that are not object-based but provide context for collections, will ensure long-term accessibility of the media and if appropriate, allows for delivery of assets for external use in the future. The systematic use of NMAI’s Collections Information System database (CIS) will lay the foundation to locate specific object-based information from collaborative engagement events.   
The workflow developed for this project allows for anyone in the conservation department to document and archive ongoing and future collaborative engagement events as part of a routine process.  The goal is to provide a useful model for other institutions engaged in similar collaborative efforts. 

Speakers
avatar for Diana Gabler

Diana Gabler

Research Fellow in Conservation, National Museum of the American Indian
Diana Gabler holds a Diploma (MA) in Conservation of Archaeological, Ethnographic and Decorated Arts Objects from the State Academy of Art and Design Stuttgart, Germany. She is currently Research Fellow in Conservation at the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) Washington... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:00pm

(Textiles + Wooden Artifacts) Sofa, So Good...Conservation of a Mid-19th Century Children's Sofa
The conservation treatment of a small mid-19th century sofa with horsehair upholstery has been performed in this project, with the primary goals of: stabilization, reduction of visual disruption from damage, and retention of original material. This has involved utilizing fill materials and repairs where possible in contrast to traditional reupholstering techniques. Secondary to these goals, analysis and imaging have been performed in order to more closely understand the materials involved in the construction of the sofa, its intended purpose (likely as a child’s plaything), and in hopes of uncovering some of its history and origin. Analytical techniques such as: transmission Fourier transform infrared microscopy, pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and polarized light microscopy have helped to reveal information about the sofa’s materials. Imaging techniques such as: X-radiography, long wave ultraviolet radiation induced visible fluorescence, reflected infrared imaging, and imaging using a scanning electron microscope were also useful in this fashion and provided insights into date of construction, period of use, and repair history. Keywords: Children’s furniture conservation, mid-19th century sofas, haircloth, horsehair upholstery

Speakers
avatar for Daniel Kaping

Daniel Kaping

Graduate Intern in Objects Conservation, The Field Museum of Natural History
A third-year graduate student in the SUNY Buffalo State Art Conservation program specializing in objects conservation, Daniel is interested many types of materials. Drawn in particular to ethnographic, natural history, and archaeological collections, his current third year placement... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Jonathan Thornton

Jonathan Thornton

Conservation Professor, Patricia H. and Richard E. Garman Art Conservation Department State University of New York College at Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo State)
Jonathan Thornton has taught objects conservation at the Art Conservation Department since 1980. Following an earlier career as an artist/silversmith, he studied conservation in this department when it was still located in Cooperstown, NY, and received his M. A. and Certificate of... Read More →

Saturday June 2, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Architecture) Electro-migrating process with silicone quaternary ammonium salt for protecting historic reinforced concrete buildings
Today, the historic concrete structures from the late 19th and early 20th century are facing severe degradation problems due to chloride ions, carbonation and other aggressive environmental factors. Although repair and reinforcement become urgent, effective methods are still under development. Electrochemical techniques (for example, realkalisation and electrochemical chloride extraction) and corrosion inhibitors have been used in protecting reinforced concrete buildings from corrosion. Recently, bidirectional electro-migrating (BIEM) is considered as a new technique, transferring corrosion inhibitors to the surface of steel rebar to prevent its corrosion. The materials acting as electro-migrating corrosion inhibitors are required to form cationic species in alkalinity concrete pore solution and with high mobility in concrete mortar. The available electro-migrating corrosion inhibitors now normally contain an amine, amino alcohol group or quaternary ammonium salt. But none of them can improve the durability of cement and concrete matrix directly. This study investigated the protective effectiveness of a new electro-migrating corrosion inhibitor--silicone quaternary ammonium salt (Octadecyldimethyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] ammonium). Due to its molecular structure, it can create cations in solution and the silane group forms silicic acid by hydrolysis reaction generating silicon-oxygen bonds, which brings consolidating effect; besides the alkyl groups provide hydrophobicity. Experiments were performed in specimens that imitate reinforced concrete. The effectiveness of preventing corrosion was characterized by electrochemical measurements including potential dynamic polarization curve (PD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after BIEM treatment. The contents of nitrogen in different depth was measured to evaluate the efficiency of migration. Hydrophobicity was evaluated by contact angle after immersion of silicone quaternary ammonium salt. The results showed that the corrosion current (the corrosion kinetic parameters derived from the Tafel plots value) for steel in concrete before and after BIEM treatment was found to be reduced respectively. Improvement of the polarization resistance and charge-transfer resistance were determined by fitting parameters for specimens of EIS, suggesting that the resistance of concrete matrix and steel rebar were both increased after BIEM. The contents of nitrogen becoming higher as the depth increasing, means that silicone quaternary ammonium salt accumulated around the steel rebar. The contact angle was around 90 degree after immersion of silicone quaternary ammonium salt solution. The results obtained in the laboratory experiments indicate that BIEM treatment with silicone quaternary ammonium salt enhance the resistance ability to corrosion of steel rebar. In addition, this material has good migrating mobility in cement paste though BIEM and can maintain hydrophobicity. The investigated results reveal that BIEM technique with silicone quaternary ammonium salt could be a potential multifunctional treatment applied in conservation of historic reinforced concrete buildings.

Speakers
avatar for Shen Ling

Shen Ling

Student, Zhejiang University
Education: PhD student in Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, School of Humanities, Zhejiang University since September 2017. Supervisor is Hui Zhang, associate professor in Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, School of Humanities, Zhejiang University March... Read More →

Co-Authors
KC

Kaihao Chen

Bachelor student, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
July 2017 Graduate from Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Mainly research about how corrosion hibitor that can used in electrochemical treatment affect the characteristics of concrete matrix though labrotory tsets. And the research... Read More →
WC

Wendong Chen

Bachelor student, Zhejiang University
July 2017 Graduate from Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Mainly research about new corrosion inhibitors that can used in protecting historic RC buildings though labrotory tset by electrochemical measurements. Supervisor is Hui Zhang, associate professor... Read More →
HZ

Hui Zhang

Associate professor, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Associate Professor,Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China. Mainly reasch about organic chemical synthesis

Saturday June 2, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Texas Ballroom C Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Objects) ‘Once in a Whale': The Conservation Treatment of Historic Cetacea at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History
In January 2013, the Oxford University Museum of Natural History (OUMNH) closed its doors for 14 months, allowing for the restoration of the original Victorian glass roof. The scaffolding required for this work enabled for the first time easy access to several whale skeletons suspended from the museum roof. This provided the opportunity for a thorough condition assessment and conservation treatment exercise which is the focus of this paper. The project, titled ‘Once in a Whale’, encompassed several large articulated skeletons as well as a Humpback Whale skull and the huge mandible of a Sperm Whale. The specimens had been on continuous display since the museum opened in 1860 and were in poor condition overall. 150 years on display had left these specimens with varied types of deterioration: decades of dust and ingrained dirt, acidic sebaceous secretions, and delamination and bleaching caused by continuous exposure to UV and the constant instability of the museum environment. With only 6 months to complete treatment and with limited funding, the aims were to preserve and stabilize the specimens for display and to improve their scientific accuracy. Treatment was guided by our own research, experimentation, and consultation with other conservators working on similar materials. The specimens were thoroughly cleaned, and consolidated to provide additional strength. Corroded wires were replaced and inappropriate anatomy was corrected where possible. Once completed, the skeletons were transferred to new positions and installed higher than previous to take advantage of the vast roof space and to make them a more prominent feature of the museum displays. The project blog, ‘onceinawhale.com’, was created to capture and convey the conservation process. This outlined the material science and treatment rationale for working on these unique materials, drawing interest from the public and conservation professionals alike. The whales attracted considerable positive attention, with artistic professionals and enthusiasts inspired to join us in the ‘whale tank’ to illustrate, film and photograph the work being carried out. The skeletons featured in the BBC4 series ‘Secrets of Bones’ (2014) and the project was eventually awarded ‘Highly Commended’ in the Conservation and Restoration category at the 2014 UK Museum and Heritage Awards. Overall the ‘Once in a Whale’ project delivered many beneficial outcomes. Firstly, by highlighting environmental issues and the resulting impact on these specimens, there have been positive institutional changes to collections care. Secondly, our research contributed and strengthened a limited knowledge base regarding the treatment of these types of materials and highlighted areas requiring further research. Finally, the project also served as an exemplar demonstration of how bringing conservation out of a laboratory setting and to new audiences can inspire and create innovative and exciting outreach opportunities.

Speakers
avatar for Bethany Palumbo

Bethany Palumbo

Conservator of Life Collections, Oxford University Museum of Natural History
Bethany Palumbo is Conservator for Life Collections at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, where she has held this role since 2012. She specializes in the conservation of natural history collections with emphasis in osteological and taxidermy collections as well as preventive... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Texas Ballroom B Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Paintings) American Abstract Expressionist painter, Sam Francis (1923-1994): Techniques and materials inform conservation treatment in the 21st century.
Debra Burchett-Lere, director of the Sam Francis Foundation and Aneta Zebala, conservator in private practice, have investigated Francis’s materials through ongoing conservation interventions of Francis works and in preparation for the 2011 release of Sam Francis: Catalogue Raisonné of Canvas and Panel Paintings, 1946-1994, published by UC, Berkeley. Paint samples were taken and analyzed from 34 paintings from the 1940s to 1990s for the upcoming GCI publication (2018 release) Sam Francis: The Artist's Materials. This in-depth study includes paintings from collections of Beyeler Museum, Basel and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. Through systematic study and analysis, new information has come to light regarding unknown aspects of Francis’s practices to form the basis for this study. He enthusiastically used new commercial materials when they became available, and developed his own paints to achieve the saturation of color and desired consistency of paint. Newly discovered and existing photographs of his studios in Bern, New York, Paris, San Francisco, and Santa Monica, show a range of brands of materials that he used both on canvas and paper including watercolor, oil, acrylic, solvent-based acrylics, commercial acrylic emulsions, inks and custom-mixed acrylic dispersion paints. Before 1960 Francis used oil paints in a viscous medium, often with wax and resins. He began to use acrylic paint in the late 1950s, at times combining acrylic and oil paint with other water-borne media in one painting. This was not part of a structured system of experimentation, but rather he willed his paints to co-exist on the surface regardless of medium. Francis’s expansive use of blue paint created a misconception that he used many blue pigments. The extensive pigment analysis identified three blue colors: ultramarine, cobalt and phthalocyanine blue, and an unexpected twenty-one different reds in the works studied. He reinvented the physical act of painting, and made the most of drips, splatters and controlled surface accidents in works of all sizes. He manipulated surface tension of watered down paint and distinct optical and handling properties of acrylic and dispersion paints and created a range of surfaces varying from washes of color, tinted gesso, to pulsating thick orbs. Wet-in-wet and wet-over-dry techniques suggest both an immediacy and interval of time between painting stages. Understanding artist’s materials is a critical part of any conservation intervention. Many of Francis’s paintings exhibit highly chromatic surfaces, where chameleon-like colors exhibit metameric color change, in different light sources. Additional atypical effects such as bronzing, fluorescence or opalescence present in Francis works add to a challenging task of color matching of modern synthetic organic pigments. Large passages of exposed white priming make Francis’s canvases vulnerable to surface soiling and damage, which presents a constant problem of cleaning his acrylic paintings. In view of the scientific and conservation findings presented in the Tate publication Modern Paints Uncovered, it is critical to revisit the practices of aqueous-based cleaning of Sam Francis’s paintings. It is our intent to share discoveries in the artist’s studio practices to help understand thousands of paintings that make up his oeuvre.

Speakers
avatar for Aneta Zebala

Aneta Zebala

Conservator, Zebala & Partners
Aneta Zebala is the founding partner of Zebala & Partners conservation firm, and Head Conservator of her Paintings Conservation Studio in Santa Monica, CA. She has Masters Degree of Paintings Conservation, Department of Easel and Wall Paintings Conservation (Academy of Fine Arts in... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Debra Burchett-Lere

Debra Burchett-Lere

Executive Director, Sam Francis Foundation
Author, curator, and fine art appraiser Debra Burchett-Lere first started working with Sam Francis in the mid-1980s when she was the director at Gemini G.E.L. (the renowned contemporary print publishing company in Los Angeles with Francis, David Hockney, Jasper Johns, Ellsworth Kelly... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Texas Ballroom A Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Research and Technical Studies) Colors of Jazz: Identification of the colorants in Henri Matisse gouaches using a noninvasive approach
In the last two decades of his extraordinary career, Henri Matisse created a remarkable body of work known as the Cut-Outs. He worked intensively with scissors and sheets of papers painted with vibrant gouaches, cutting shapes that he would then assemble to recreate lively figurative or abstract compositions. One of the earliest and most emblematic works of that period is the Jazz illustrated book published in 1947 by Tériade, a renowned editor of artist books in Paris. Matisse began creating the twenty circus themed cut-outs to be used as maquettes for the book in 1943. He insisted the vibrant colors of the cut-outs should be translated into the printed book, and this was ultimately achieved by the printer Vairel using Linel gouaches and the pochoir printing process. Hardly any information has been reported or published however about the composition of these particular gouaches or their properties, in particular their lightfastness; even though the artist himself was aware of the fragility of some of the colors like the pinks and the violets. In the preparation stages of a major exhibition at MoMA in 2014 dedicated to Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs, the conservation department received the generous donation of a “reference set” of seventy nine samples taken from leftovers of original painted papers preserved by the artist’s family and representing presumably the full range of colors he used. This set of reference samples was submitted to an exhaustive analysis to identify and characterize all the colorants present, to evaluate their lightfastness by microfading, and to build a reference library of spectral fingerprints acquired by XRF, FTIR, Raman, FT-Raman, SERS, ATR-FTIR, micro-FTIR, reflectance-FTIR and reflectance visible spectrophotometry. This study set is also being used to devise and validate a noninvasive protocol for the identification of the colorants in actual Cut-Outs. The current noninvasive methodology was applied to examine the nineteen different colors in the Jazz portfolio of twenty pochoirs in the MoMA collection. Most of the colorants present were identified successfully based on species or elemental markers detected by reflectance-FTIR, XRF analysis and spectrophotometry. Obtained results nevertheless reveal that a few of the colors that are repeated across different plates have the same tonality, but contain different colorants, suggesting that gouaches from different manufacturers were potentially used. Moreover, not all the gouaches in the Jazz portfolio could be matched to samples in the reference set, implying that it is incomplete. The reference spectral libraries compiled so far is therefore being expanded by studying other Cut-Outs in the MoMA collection and in other institutions, and by analyzing pure gouaches taken from paint tubes or paint brochures from the same period.

Authors in Publication Order: Ana  Martins, Tiffany Tang,  Abedalnour Haddad 

Speakers
avatar for Ana Martins

Ana Martins

Conservation Scientist, MoMA
Ana Martins is a Conservation Scientist working in the MoMA Conservation Department since 2008. She has a degree and a PhD in Chemistry from the University of Oporto in Portugal where she taught Analytical Chemistry and Instrumental Analysis as a Professor of the Faculty of Science... Read More →

Co-Authors
avatar for Abed Haddad

Abed Haddad

Graduate Student, The Graduate Center, CUNYnCity College of New York, CUNY
Abed Haddad is graduate student pursuing a doctoral degree in Chemistry from the Graduate Center at the City University of New York. He has a B.S. in chemistry and minor in art history from Millsaps College in Jackson, MS. He works primarily with Raman spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced... Read More →
avatar for Tiffany Tang

Tiffany Tang

Chemistry Student, New York University
Tiffany Tang is a senior at New York University, where she is pursuing a BSc in Chemistry with minors in Art History and Philosophy. In 2017, she was a summer intern in the Department of Conservation at the Museum of Modern Art where she worked on projects in conservation science... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Meyerland Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Sustainability) A collaborative web platform for designing green museum storages
Could the characteristics of small-scale institutions (SSIs) – the necessity of social innovation, the need for cost-effective solutions – help us designing sustainable practices in the preservation field? We compared recent methods for enhancing preservation conditions. Some promote preventive conservation practices (e.g.: RE-ORG (1)), others advocate a transition towards sustainability (e.g.: The Green Museum by Sarah Brophy (2)). The methods were selected for their newness, low price, the existence of case studies and their applicability in the SSIs context. Our aim was to help SSIs professionals to assess their problems of storage in a sustainable way. We created Réserve durable, a collaborative website, to share our analysis.

Cornerstone of the museum’s mission, the storage is a place where preservation requirements justify high financial costs and energy consumption (3). At the same time, cultural institutions worldwide are missing financial, human and time-related resources. SSIs situations are usually even worse. Furthermore, coming EU laws will leave no choice to cultural institutions but to invest in nearly-zero-energy buildings (NZEB) for building or renovating their facilities (6). Despite the fact that several tools for implementing green practices are available, and despite the advantages that “Going green” could offer them, sustainability is often at the bottom of the SSIs priority list.

Thanks to a survey addressed to Belgian SSIs, we defined their characteristics and needs in terms of conservation practices. That led to the creation of Réserve durable (7), which compares the above methods in light of the survey results. We propose a reflexive model of SSIs management combining “Going green” and state-of-the-art preservation methods such as RE-ORG.

--------------------
(1) RE-ORG – Tools for Museum Storage Reorganization and Documentation Systems, RE-ORG project website (online) (available on: http://www.iccrom.org/section/preventive-conservation/re-org, consulted on July 26, 2017).
(2) BROPHY (Sarah), WYLIE (Elizabeth), The Green museum, a primer on environmental practice, Altamire Press, Danvers, 2008, 226 p.
(3) A recent study led by the Image Permanence Institute (IPI), showed that the HVAC system consumption costs by itself 20k$ to 50k$ per year for a 900 m2 museum floor space. IMAGE PERMANENCE INSTITUTE, IPI’s Guide to: Sustainable Preservation Practices for managing storage environments, version 2.0, Image Permanence Institute (IPI), New York, 2012, p. 3.
(4) ICCROM, UNESCO, “ICCROM – UNESCO International Storage Survey 2011, Summary of results”, 2011, on the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) website (online) (available on:  http://www.iccrom.org/sites/default/files/ICCROM-UNESCO%20International%20Storage%20Survey%202011_en.pdf, consulted on July 26, 2017).
(5) According to Gaël de Guichen, expert at ICCROM for 47 years. DE GUICHEN (Gaël), "Reorganizing Museum storage : an 80-year journey… and still a way to go!" in International RE-ORG Seminar, Reconnecting with Collections in Storage, Institut Royal du Patrimoine artistique (KIK/IRPA), Brussels, September 28-29, 2016.
(6) Directive PEB (2010/31/UE), LUE, 2010, art. 9.
(7) Réserve durable (online) (available on: https://reservedurable.miraheze.org/wiki/Accueil, consulted on July 26, 2017).

Speakers
avatar for Estelle De Bruyn

Estelle De Bruyn

Preservation scientist, Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIK/IRPA)
Estelle just completed her master's degree in ENSAV La Cambre (Brussels, Belgium) in paper conservation. She specialized in preservation through internships at the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIK/IRPA, Brussels), the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI, Ottawa) and the... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
Hunters Creek Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Textiles + Wooden Artifacts) “A New Approach to an Old Problem: Comfort and Minimally Intrusive Upholstery”
In a museum setting, comfort is not a consideration in producing minimally intrusive upholstery. In fact, being uncomfortable guards against furniture use, particularly in a house museum setting. For private collectors who use their furniture in the home, however, this is unacceptable. For almost two decades, the standard approach has been to protect the fragile historic frame with a new, custom-fit, wooden, inner frame that can be upholstered instead to take the strain of traditional webbing, horsehair stuffing, and/or springs. This is more successful on larger furniture which can mask the weight and bulk of a supplementary frame and are often more deeply stuffed. Unfortunately, there have been few options for smaller furniture other than rigid plywood decks with a minimum of padding. Using a new technique, however, we have been able to apply a very conservative approach to delicate side chairs and reduce the number of fasteners and steps involved in producing remarkably comfortable upholstery compensation. This technique uses relief cuts in the thin plywood deck to create a spring effect which mimics the feel of traditional webbed upholstery. The impetus for this technique was the treatment of a set of twelve high-style dining chairs fabricated by Thomas Seymour in Boston c. 1810. These chairs were to be reupholstered with tufted leather seats and a stylish stitched French edge profile that was integral to their interpretation. This would be both labor-intensive and destructive to the frames in traditional upholstery. Adding a separate inner frame would protect the chair but make it heavy and even more costly. Instead a single layer plywood deck cut to be flexible in the center and accommodate the button ties was used to span over the seat rails. Using this new technique was simple, with the benefit of removing the strain and distortion often caused by taught webbing. The resulting conservation saved the client labor on each chair versus traditional upholstery, while also providing a comfortable, conservative, historically accurate compensation. The chairs have been in moderate use for over ten years now. A set of six Duncan Phyfe lotus-back dining chairs from about 1840 were conserved in our shop using the same technique. This set of curvilinear seats was able to be made functional using this technique in spite of the fact that the seat rails were so damaged from years of upholstery that the rails would have needed partial replacement to have been upholstered traditionally.

Speakers
avatar for Chris Shelton-[PA]

Chris Shelton-[PA]

Principal, Robert Mussey Associates, Inc.
Chris Shelton received his graduate degree in conservation from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Art Conservation Program. He worked for Colonial Williamsburg and for the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston on their modern and European collections as well as for the Bayou Bend Collection... Read More →


Saturday June 2, 2018 2:30pm - 3:00pm
River Oaks Meeting Room Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm

(Book and Paper + Electronic Media) Preserving the Protest: Collection and Care of Social Movement Archives [Archives Conservation Discussion Group]
The Archives Conservation Discussion Group (ACDG) and the Electronic Media Group (EMG) will host a panel presentation and discussion session addressing the preservation of physical and digital objects used in political demonstrations and social movements.

Materials produced and used during protest marches, vigils, and political actions tend to be ephemeral - made and used on-the-fly with available, inexpensive materials - and are often exposed to a range of environmental hazards prior to entering collections. Digital media - from live video streaming to social media posts to smartphone photos - have become integral to contemporary protest movements and require innovative approaches to preservation and access.

Presentations and Panelists:

  • Preserving Artifacts of Free Speech: Simple Solutions for Buttons, T-shirts, and Bumper Stickers
    Whitney Baker, Head, Conservation Services, University of Kansas Libraries
  • The History, Evolution, and Growth of Digital Printing Technologies and Materials Correlated with Major Political and Social Movements and Events over the Last Three Decades
    Daniel Burge, Senior Research Scientist, Image Permanence Institute
  • Moldy Oldies: Saving Historic Audiotapes with Digitization & Organic Particle Masks
    Kim R. Du Boise, President & Senior Photograph Conservator of PhotoArts Imaging Professionals, LLC., and Roy Canizaro, VP and Electronic and Time-based Media Conservator forPhotoArts Imaging Professionals, LLC
  • Making Social Movements Accessible at Media Burn Archive
    Dan Erdman, Video Archivist, Media Burn Archive
  • Caught Up in the Current: Documenting, Preserving,and Digitizing Political Protest Ephemera
    Cher Schneider, Juanita J. and Robert E. Simpson Senior Conservator, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

Discussion topics will include:

  • Documenting and collecting in "real time" as events unfold
  • Preserving and making accessible materials which are being used as part of direct political action
  • Correlations between social movements and the use of contemporary materials
  • Storage and treatment of ephemeral materials
  • Creative housing solutions for oversized and 3-dimensional objects
  • Navigating issues of provenance, copyright and metadata
  • Collaborating with activists and community organizations
  • Addressing condition issues resulting from environmental exposure

Moderators
avatar for Kim R. Du Boise-[PA]

Kim R. Du Boise-[PA]

President; Senior Photograph Conservator, PhotoArts Imaging Professionals, LLC
Kim R. Du Boise has over 40 years’ experience with art, photography, and photographic materials as a photographer, university/college instructor, printmaker & conservator. Kim developed the art department at Pearl River Community College in 1987-1994 and a BFA curriculum in Photography... Read More →
avatar for Stephanie I. Gowler

Stephanie I. Gowler

Conservator, Indiana Historical Society
Stephanie Gowler is Paper Conservator at the Indiana Historical Society. She holds a BA in English Literature from Earlham College, an MLIS and a Certificate in Book Arts from the University of Iowa, and a Certificate of Advanced Study in Conservation from the University of Texas... Read More →
avatar for Dawn Mankowski

Dawn Mankowski

Conservator, NYU Libraries
Dawn Mankowski is a 2013 graduate of the Buffalo State College program in Art Conservation. She is currently a Special Collections Conservator at NYU Libraries. She was previously the Book and Paper Conservator for the New York State Archives, Library, and Museum. Dawn also served... Read More →
avatar for Flavia Perugini

Flavia Perugini

Conservator, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Flavia Perugini was born and raised in Italy where she trained and worked as an architect after graduating with Laurea in Architecture (equivalent of MS), from the University of Florence, Italy, in 1986. She enrolled in the three-year graduate conservation program at London Guildhall... Read More →
avatar for Crystal Sanchez

Crystal Sanchez

Conservator, Smithsonian Institution
Crystal Sanchez is a media archivist at the Smithsonian Institution on the Digital Asset Management System (DAMS), working with digital collections from across the Smithsonian’s diverse Museums, Archives, Libraries, Research Centers, and the Zoo. She has Masters degrees from New... Read More →

Speakers
avatar for Whitney Baker-[PA]

Whitney Baker-[PA]

Head of Conservation, University of Kansas Libraries
Whitney Baker is Head of Conservation Services at the University of Kansas Libraries, where she has worked since 2002. Since 2004 she has taught the preventive conservation class in the graduate program in Museum Studies at the University of Kansas. She holds an MLIS and Advanced... Read More →
avatar for Daniel Burge

Daniel Burge

Senior Research Scientist, Rochester Institute of Technology
Daniel M. Burge, Senior Research Scientist, has been a full-time member of the Image Permanence Institute (IPI) staff for the last 25 years. He received his B.S. degree in Imaging and Photographic Technology from the Rochester Institute of Technology in 1991. He managed IPI's enclosure... Read More →
avatar for Roy T. Canizaro

Roy T. Canizaro

Vice President, Electronic & Time-based Media Conservator, PhotoArts Imaging Professionals, LLC
Roy T. Canizaro has worked with and tested photography, movie films and photographic materials for over four decades as a photographer, videographer, electronics technician, and conservator. He is a partner and senior Electronic Media conservator at PhotoArts Imaging Professionals... Read More →
avatar for Dan Erdman

Dan Erdman

Librarian/Archivist, Media Burn
avatar for Cher Schneider-[PA]

Cher Schneider-[PA]

Head of Paper Conservation, ICA-Art Conservation
Cher Schneider works at ICA in Cleveland as Head of Paper Conservation. She previously was Juanita J. and robert E. Simpson Senior Conservator at The University of Illinois. Prior to that she worked as the Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Paper Conservation at The Art Institute of Chicago... Read More →



Saturday June 2, 2018 2:30pm - 4:30pm
Texas Ballroom E Marriott Marquis Houston

2:30pm